New york times access index

New york times access index DEFAULT
classPell grad
shareNet price,
per student 1 University of California-Irvine 5,449 40 $13k 1.91 $11k 2 University of California-Davis 5,063 31 $14k 1.62 $24k 3 University of California-Santa Barbara 4,597 31 $14k 1.61 $11k 4 University of California-San Diego 5,218 28 $13k 1.55 $24k 5 University of California-Los Angeles 5,684 28 $13k 1.53 $65k 6 University of Florida 6,348 24 $9k 1.52 $29k 7 University of California-Berkeley 4,677 23 $13k 1.37 $92k 8 Vassar 662 22 $12k 1.36 $352k 9 Amherst 466 20 $11k 1.33 $930k 10 Pomona 396 18 $9k 1.32 $1.147m 11 Harvard 1,658 15 $7k 1.30 $1.393m 12 Westminster, Pa. 302 27 $21k 1.30 $65k 13 University of Washington-Seattle Campus 6,144 17 $10k 1.28 $51k 14 Knox 380 24 $19k 1.27 $70k 15 Davidson 483 14 $7k 1.26 $293k 16 U.N.C.-Chapel Hill 3,943 18 $12k 1.25 $80k 17 M.I.T. 1,115 15 $9k 1.24 $980k 18 Princeton 1,284 13 $7k 1.24 $2.320m 19 Stanford 1,674 13 $7k 1.23 $1.216m 20 Wellesley 590 17 $12k 1.23 $593k 21 Columbia 1,476 15 $9k 1.23 $317k 22 Brown 1,542 16 $11k 1.21 $303k 23 Williams 544 15 $10k 1.21 $888k 24 University of Georgia 5,219 17 $13k 1.20 $22k 25 Moody Bible Institute 414 24 $21k 1.20 $12k 26 Yale 1,358 12 $8k 1.18 $1.528m 27 Rutgers-New Brunswick 6,393 23 $20k 1.18 $16k 28 Rice 976 14 $11k 1.16 $729k 29 Texas A&M-College Station 9,030 17 $14k 1.16 $171k 30 Barnard 576 18 $15k 1.16 $99k 31 Grinnell 423 19 $16k 1.16 $950k 32 Occidental 548 18 $15k 1.16 $157k 33 Gustavus Adolphus 610 21 $19k 1.16 $49k 34 Vanderbilt 1,613 12 $9k 1.15 $312k 35 SUNY at Binghamton 2,585 20 $18k 1.14 $5k 36 Haverford 330 15 $13k 1.14 $345k 37 Hamilton 491 16 $14k 1.11 $417k 38 Wesleyan 741 17 $16k 1.10 $208k 39 U. Penn. 2,353 14 $13k 1.10 $357k 40 University of Texas at Austin 7,118 17 $17k 1.09 $64k 41 St. Mary’s, Md. 383 16 $15k 1.09 $15k 42 College of Saint Benedict 538 20 $21k 1.08 $24k 43 Duke 1,730 12 $12k 1.07 $365k 44 Claremont McKenna 337 12 $11k 1.07 $456k 45 Middlebury 625 13 $13k 1.07 $290k 46 Wheaton, Ill. 597 17 $18k 1.07 $116k 47 Allegheny 601 20 $22k 1.07 $79k 48 University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 6,176 12 $12k 1.06 $186k 49 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 7,321 17 $18k 1.06 n/a 50 Clark 614 18 $20k 1.05 $96k 51 Bowdoin 497 12 $12k 1.05 $574k 52 Macalester 555 15 $16k 1.05 $341k 53 Franklin and Marshall 604 16 $17k 1.04 $118k 54 Georgia Tech-Main Campus 2,669 11 $11k 1.04 $77k 55 Dartmouth 1,109 12 $12k 1.04 $581k 56 Swarthmore 388 14 $16k 1.03 $1.035m 57 Saint John’s 497 17 $19k 1.03 $79k 58 Smith 643 16 $18k 1.03 $462k 59 University of Vermont 2,483 13 $15k 1.03 $29k 60 Brandeis 833 17 $19k 1.03 $110k 61 Augustana 627 17 $19k 1.03 $50k 62 Hope 822 16 $19k 1.01 $46k 63 St. Olaf 752 15 $17k 1.01 $121k 64 Washington and Lee 480 9 $10k 1.01 $599k 65 Ohio State-Main Campus 7,121 15 $17k 1.01 $53k 66 University of Richmond 805 13 $15k 1.00 $480k 67 Yeshiva 860 16 $19k 1.00 $180k 68 Colby 483 9 $11k 0.99 $332k 69 Kalamazoo 453 16 $19k 0.99 $133k 70 Wofford 415 16 $19k 0.99 $96k 71 Clemson 3,286 11 $14k 0.99 $26k 72 Northwestern 2,040 13 $16k 0.98 $330k 73 Cornell 3,223 14 $17k 0.98 $193k 74 Denison 582 15 $18k 0.98 $305k 75 University of New Hampshire-Main Campus 2,869 18 $22k 0.97 $16k 76 Sewanee 488 14 $18k 0.97 $190k 77 College of William and Mary 1,479 9 $11k 0.97 $85k 78 Juniata 391 17 $21k 0.97 $60k 79 University of Maryland-College Park 4,011 12 $15k 0.97 $12k 80 University of Rochester 1,472 16 $20k 0.97 $163k 81 University of Chicago 1,426 10 $13k 0.96 $430k 82 Reed 354 15 $19k 0.96 $329k 83 Emory 1,853 18 $22k 0.95 $382k 84 Colgate 759 10 $13k 0.95 $265k 85 University of Southern California 2,920 17 $21k 0.95 $108k 86 Mount Holyoke 511 14 $18k 0.95 $248k 87 University of Connecticut 3,741 14 $18k 0.95 $13k 88 Georgetown 1,593 12 $16k 0.95 $84k 89 Lawrence 392 17 $22k 0.95 $136k 90 Syracuse 3,476 19 $25k 0.94 $49k 91 SUNY at Geneseo 1,128 13 $18k 0.94 $4k 92 DePauw 641 15 $19k 0.94 $233k 93 Ursinus 425 18 $23k 0.94 $77k 94 University of Delaware 4,210 11 $15k 0.94 $56k 95 Johns Hopkins 1,390 12 $16k 0.94 $139k 96 St. Lawrence Univ. 629 16 $22k 0.93 $104k 97 College of the Holy Cross 719 15 $21k 0.93 $203k 98 Bryn Mawr 365 13 $18k 0.92 $458k 99 Skidmore 660 13 $18k 0.92 $110k 100 Elizabethtown 530 16 $22k 0.91 $29k 101 Siena College 766 19 $26k 0.91 $42k 102 University of Virginia-Main Campus 3,516 11 $16k 0.91 $213k 103 Illinois Wesleyan 527 16 $22k 0.91 $117k 104 Carleton 527 11 $16k 0.91 $351k 105 Notre Dame 2,070 10 $16k 0.91 $545k 106 Washington & Jefferson 326 17 $23k 0.91 $86k 107 Luther 627 16 $22k 0.91 $49k 108 Trinity, Conn. 604 10 $15k 0.91 $206k 109 Bates 500 9 $14k 0.90 $134k 110 Messiah 648 16 $23k 0.89 $40k 111 Pepperdine 783 15 $22k 0.89 $97k 112 Lehigh 1,198 13 $19k 0.88 $168k 113 Virginia Tech 5,360 12 $18k 0.88 $21k 114 James Madison 4,199 10 $16k 0.88 $3k 115 Connecticut College 489 12 $19k 0.87 $115k 116 University of Wisconsin-Madison 6,323 10 $16k 0.87 $61k 117 Trinity University, Tex. 534 12 $19k 0.86 $411k 118 The College of New Jersey 1,402 14 $22k 0.86 $3k 119 Stonehill 610 15 $23k 0.85 $67k 120 Kenyon 480 9 $16k 0.84 $107k 121 Colorado College 522 10 $18k 0.84 $318k 122 Willamette 545 17 $26k 0.84 $76k 123 Tufts 1,307 10 $18k 0.83 $131k 124 Wheaton, Mass. 458 16 $25k 0.82 $107k 125 Gettysburg 703 12 $20k 0.82 $94k 126 Babson 489 15 $24k 0.82 $85k 127 University of Portland 835 16 $26k 0.82 $29k 128 Stevens Institute of Technology 622 16 $26k 0.81 $38k 129 Bentley 974 13 $22k 0.81 $43k 130 Case Western 1,252 15 $25k 0.78 $187k 131 Creighton 963 13 $24k 0.77 $41k 132 Oberlin 780 8 $19k 0.77 $261k 133 Lafayette 635 9 $19k 0.76 $292k 134 Hobart William Smith Colleges 638 12 $23k 0.76 $73k 135 Centre 377 13 $24k 0.76 $171k 136 Washington University in St. Louis 1,595 7 $17k 0.75 $418k 137 Dickinson 626 9 $20k 0.75 $142k 138 Muhlenberg 579 10 $21k 0.74 $71k 139 Boston College 2,305 11 $23k 0.74 $137k 140 Fairfield 963 11 $22k 0.74 $58k 141 Union College 559 12 $24k 0.73 $173k 142 University of Scranton 878 14 $27k 0.73 $26k 143 Rhodes 545 11 $23k 0.73 $149k 144 Wake Forest 1,230 11 $23k 0.73 $143k 145 Loyola University, Maryland 1,096 12 $24k 0.72 $34k 146 Villanova 1,659 12 $24k 0.72 $42k 147 American 1,623 14 $28k 0.71 $46k 148 University of Pittsburgh-Pittsburgh Campus 3,851 12 $26k 0.70 $101k 149 Gonzaga 1,238 13 $27k 0.69 $22k 150 Marquette 1,989 13 $27k 0.69 $42k 151 George Washington 2,348 10 $23k 0.68 $63k 152 Penn State-Main Campus 8,005 11 $25k 0.68 $33k 153 Whitman 392 9 $23k 0.66 $300k 154 Carnegie Mellon 1,442 11 $25k 0.66 $75k 155 University of Denver 1,399 12 $27k 0.65 $38k 156 N.Y.U. 5,168 18 $34k 0.65 $67k 157 Miami University-Oxford 3,637 9 $24k 0.65 $32k 158 Boston University 3,807 12 $27k 0.64 $44k 159 Ithaca 1,789 14 $30k 0.64 $35k 160 Bucknell 933 8 $23k 0.63 $181k 161 Furman 755 10 $26k 0.62 $198k 162 Santa Clara 1,291 11 $27k 0.62 $69k 163 R.P.I. 1,411 14 $30k 0.62 $88k 164 Fordham 1,944 14 $31k 0.61 $40k 165 Northeastern 2,891 10 $26k 0.61 $24k 166 Providence 1,027 10 $27k 0.61 $45k 167 University of Miami 2,115 12 $29k 0.61 $49k 168 Bryant 890 13 $32k 0.56 $45k 169 Quinnipiac 1,795 12 $31k 0.55 $37k 170 Marist 1,149 11 $29k 0.55 $8k 171 Southern Methodist 1,428 9 $27k 0.54 $128k 172 University of Dayton 1,765 8 $27k 0.54 $41k 173 Worcester Polytechnic Institute 1,103 11 $31k 0.52 $99k 174 Emerson 862 12 $33k 0.50 $27k 175 Rhode Island School of Design 455 15 $36k 0.50 $119k 176 Elon 1,475 7 $28k 0.46 $27k 177 Texas Christian 1,935 6 $27k 0.46 $134k 178 University of Puget Sound 670 11 $33k 0.45 $104k 179 Saint Joseph’s, Pa. 1,272 7 $30k 0.39 $30k

The Methodology of Our College-Access Index

By and large, though, the colleges with the largest shares of Pell recipients also have the most economically diverse student bodies – because Pell is such a large program.

The second statistic in our index is the average net price in 2012-13 for students who came from households making between $30,000 and $48,000 a year. (Looking at the average for students from households making less than $30,000 would have produced similar results.)

Net price reflects the total cost of attendance – tuition, fees, room and board – and subtracts financial-aid grants from the college, the federal government or a state government. Appropriately, student loans and wages from work-study jobs are considered to be part of the price that students pay themselves; the value of a loan, for example, is not subtracted from the net price.

That last point is important. If you’re wondering how a household making $40,000 can afford to pay, say, $10,000 or $15,000 for college, the answer is that much of this money comes from loans and student wages. On average, graduates of private colleges have about $32,000 in debt at graduation – a substantial sum but one not nearly large enough to make skipping college a good idea.

As the net price data has begun to receive more attention recently, some colleges and analysts have pointed out that it is incomplete, and it is. It covers only students who receive federal financial aid (but families making between $30,001 and $48,000 generally do). Not all colleges seem to define annual income in precisely the same way, as the Chronicle of Higher Education has noted. And the net-price statistics don’t distinguish between the rare wealthy student whose family didn’t make much money in a given year and the typical low-income student.

But when you think through each of these issues, you come to realize that they do not change the big picture. Colleges with lower net prices are doing more to reduce the cost of attendance for students of modest means.

Ideally, colleges would release a consistent set of net-price data, covering all students, in narrow income buckets. Until they do, however, the net-price data is an important measure. It shows which colleges are charging their low- and middle-income students more money and which are charging less. Without it, the rest of us – students, parents, taxpayers, policy makers – are left with competing claims from colleges about how generous each of their financial-aid policies are. Ignoring the existing measures of economic diversity because they have limitations, as some college officials would prefer, would be a little like ignoring all economic statistics or all baseball statistics because each is imperfect.

Longer term, we would be better served by better data. It’s possible that the federal government will eventually require colleges to release such data; the Obama administration is in the midst of an effort to release clearer data on colleges. Absent that, colleges have it within their power to improve the situation, by releasing consistent, even more comprehensive numbers.

  1. I49 coupons
  2. Punch script roblox
  3. Sidewinder precision pro driver
  4. Parts authority gaithersburg

The Most Economically Diverse Top Colleges

The recent Pell number for each college is the average share of the freshman class that received a Pell grant in 2011-12, 2012-13 and 2013-14; not all colleges had 2013 data yet. The earlier Pell data is for the fall of 2007.

Average net price is the average total cost of attendance in 2012-13, including tuition, fees, room and board, after taking into account federal, state and institutional financial aid, for students who come from households earning between $30,000 and $48,000 a year and qualifying for federal aid. Loans and wages from work-study jobs are counted in the net price as part of the students' cost.

Endowment per student is for the year 2011-12 and includes graduate students.

The College Access Index is a combination of net price and the Pell average for 2011, 2012 and 2013, using a statistical technique known as a z-score. A college with an average score on the two measures in combination will receive a zero.

Sources: individual colleges; the Department of Education

Correction: Sept. 17, 2014

Because of a reporting error by the college, the net price initially listed for William & Mary was incorrect. It is $9,300, not $21,900. An earlier version of this table mistakenly excluded Bates College (which has a four-year graduation of more than 75 percent, the cutoff for being included on this list); Bates has now been added. 

Tech Tutorial: The New York Times Digital Access

The Assault on Colleges — and the American Dream

Some of the biggest declines in grants promoting economic diversity in public colleges have been in the University of California system.

The country’s most powerful engine of upward mobility is under assault.

Public colleges have an unmatched record of lofting their students into the middle class and beyond. For decades, they have enrolled teenagers and adults from modest backgrounds, people who are often the first member of their family to attend college, and changed their trajectories.

Over the last several years, however, most states have cut their spending on higher education, some drastically. Many public universities have responded by enrolling fewer poor and middle-class students — and replacing them with affluent students who can afford the tuition.

The situation is particularly demoralizing because it’s happening even as politicians from both parties spend more time trumpeting their supposedly deep concern for the American dream. Yet government policy is hurting, not fostering, many people’s chance to earn the most reliable ticket to a good job and a better life.

The decline of economic diversity at top public colleges is the clearest pattern in The Times’s third annual ranking of leading colleges — the roughly 170 nationwide with a five-year graduation rate of at least 75 percent. (Yes, you can be disappointed that so few colleges clear that bar.)

The ranking, called the College Access Index, is based on how many low- and middle-income students colleges graduate and how much those students must pay. The index is a measure of which top institutions are doing the most to promote the American dream.

Many are doing less than they once did. At the public colleges in the index, the average share of last year’s freshman class receiving Pell grants — which means they typically come from the bottom half of the income distribution — fell to 21.8 percent, from 24.3 percent in 2011-12. Campuses with declining economic diversity include the Universities of Florida, Michigan, Minnesota, Pittsburgh and Wisconsin, as well as Binghamton, Ohio State and Rutgers.

By comparison, the Pell share has recently held roughly constant at top private colleges, around 16 percent.

Some of the biggest declines have been in the University of California system, which has long been the most economically diverse place in elite higher education. On the San Diego campus five years ago, 46 percent of freshmen received Pell grants. Last year, the share had dropped to 26 percent. When I first saw that number in The Times database, I figured it was a typo.

It wasn’t. The United States is investing less in college education, at the same time that the globalized, digital economy has made that education more important than ever. Gaps between college graduates and everyone else are growing in one realm of society after another, including unemployment, wealth and health.

Given these trends, the declines in state funding are stunning. It’s as if our society were deliberately trying to restrict opportunities and worsen income inequality.

Since 2008, states’ per-student spending on higher education has fallen 18 percent nationwide, according to inflation-adjusted numbers from the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. The cuts have occurred in both blue and red states, with somewhat larger ones in Republican-run states. States made deep cuts after the financial crisis and have since failed to restore funding, choosing instead to cut taxes or spend money on health care, prisons or other areas.

“States are making it much more difficult for their residents to get high-quality higher education,” Sandy Baum of the Urban Institute said. “They are causing their institutions to charge more, to take more out of state students, to cut quality. It’s very shortsighted.” That’s exactly the right word, because spending on education often more than pays for itself in the long run.

The budget cuts affect every realm of higher education, with some of the biggest damage happening at community colleges and less selective four-year institutions. These campuses enroll the great majority of lower-income college students. Yet flagship public campuses — like those in Ann Arbor, Mich., Boulder, Colo., and Gainesville, Fla. — are important to upward mobility too, given the success of their graduates.

In the last few years, many flagships have begun to recruit more upper-income students from outside their state, including from overseas. Those students don’t qualify for in-state tuition or for much financial aid — and thus help bolster the colleges’ budgets.

Often, college officials describe the strategy in different terms. They say that they are trying to lift their campus’s national profile, not to mention its U.S. News ranking. To do so, they must recruit a larger pool of students with high test scores than exists in their own state.

But the net result, to put it bluntly, is bad for the country. Top state universities are displacing impressive low-income students, who have often overcome troubled neighborhoods and high schools. Many of those students then enroll instead in colleges with fewer resources and higher dropout rates. In the process, the higher-education system becomes a bit less meritocratic.

The story in California is a bit more nuanced, but still disappointing, particularly given the state university’s history. Since its founding, during a burst of national investment during and just after Abraham Lincoln’s presidency, no other university in the world has combined academic excellence and broad access so well.

John Aubrey Douglass, an education scholar, describes that combination as “the California idea.” The top five colleges in this year’s College Access Index ranking are still University of California campuses: Irvine, Santa Barbara, Davis, San Diego and Los Angeles. Berkeley ranks ninth, while the private colleges in the top 10 are Amherst, Pomona and Harvard. .

Yet even as California remains a leader, it is also inching away from its legacy.

With state support down, university leaders have decided that their least bad option is to enroll more high-income students. In only four years, undergraduate enrollment in the University of California system has risen 15 percent, or by 27,000 students. The expansion has allowed the colleges to continue enrolling similar numbers of lower-income students, rather than displacing those students, but it has created severe crowding.

“It’s pretty bad,” Gabriel Schneider, an editor of The Triton student newspaper on the San Diego campus, told me. Single dormitory rooms have been turned into doubles and even triples. Libraries and other common spaces are packed. The university tried to convert an art gallery into a classroom, only to back down after an uproar.

On the Davis campus, near Sacramento, the crowding has particularly harmed less affluent students, because apartment rents have jumped. “The housing shortage in Davis is just horrible,” said Scott Dresser, a fourth-year student. Some students are now commuting from Woodland, 10 miles away, said Eli Flesch, another fourth-year student.

What would be a better solution?

For one thing, universities should be scouring their budgets, looking for spending that’s less important to their mission than economic diversity and meritocracy are. There is no shortage of suspects: struggling academic programs, spiffy recreation centers, expensive sports teams, bureaucratic bloat.

But such cuts are not the only answer, even if some governors and state legislators claim otherwise. This country should also be investing more of its resources in education.

A century ago, it did precisely that, making high school universal and making possible the so-called American century. Today’s economy demands many more college graduates than the country currently has. Producing them won’t be free. But it will be worth it.

The alternative — which is the path we’re now on — is just about the worst economic-development strategy imaginable.

In a follow-up column next week, I’ll focus on the private colleges in the College Access Index.


York access new index times

1University of California-Irvine5,40039$12k1.9$11.1k2University of California-Santa Barbara4,60031$13k1.61$7.1k3University of California-Davis5,10030$13k1.6$11.2k4University of California-San Diego5,20029$11k1.58$22.2k5University of California-Los Angeles5,70026$11k1.52$54.2k6University of Florida6,50022$8k1.46$33.3k7Amherst College50022$9k1.44$1.141m8Pomona College50020$7k1.43$1.288m9University of California-Berkeley4,70022$11k1.38$46.3k10Harvard University1,70015$5k1.36$1.51m11Vassar College70021$11k1.36$397k12Williams College50018$7k1.35$1.049m13Princeton University1,30016$6k1.34$2.662m14Wellesley College60018$9k1.32$763.1k15Stanford University1,70014$4k1.31$1.448m16Knox College40026$18k1.3$92.9k17University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill4,00018$10k1.3$103.8k18University of Washington-Seattle6,41317$10k1.3$61k19Columbia University1,40016$9k1.26$324.2k20Barnard College60019$12k1.25$115.3k21Yale University1,40014$7k1.22$1.759m22Westminster College30025$19k1.21$80.4k23Wesleyan University80017$12k1.21$240.3k24Davidson College50013$7k1.2$356.8k25Massachusetts Institute of Technology1,00014$9k1.2$1.206m26Texas A & M University-College Station9,00017$11k1.19$175.4k27Brown University1,60015$10k1.19$337.2k28University of Georgia5,20016$12k1.18$28.3k29Occidental College50019$14k1.18$181.4k30Grinnell College40018$14k1.17$1.057m31Rice University1,00013$8k1.17$768.1k32Rutgers University-New Brunswick6,40021$17k1.17$14.9k33Duke University1,70012$7k1.17$478k34Middlebury College60015$10k1.16$326k35Washington and Lee University5009$5k1.16$679.3k36Gustavus Adolphus College60021$17k1.16$57.7k37Vanderbilt University1,60012$8k1.16$353.1k38University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign7,30018$15k1.14$26.2k39Bowdoin College50013$10k1.12$778.9k40University of Michigan-Ann Arbor6,20012$9k1.12$220k41Swarthmore College40015$12k1.11$1.173m42College of Saint Benedict50021$19k1.11$29.3k43Hamilton College50014$12k1.11$492.5k44Dartmouth College1,10013$10k1.1$718.5k45SUNY at Binghamton2,60019$17k1.1$5.9k46University of Pennsylvania2,40013$10k1.1$427.1k47Franklin and Marshall College60016$14k1.09$135.5k48Allegheny College60021$19k1.09$94.4k49Moody Bible Institute40022$20k1.08$11.4k50University of Richmond80014$13k1.08$583.9k51Smith College60016$15k1.08$554.9k52Trinity College60014$13k1.07$240.5k53Colgate University80011$10k1.06$312.6k54St. Olaf College80015$14k1.05$151.9k55Haverford College30013$12k1.05$379k56University of Chicago1,40010$9k1.04$462.1k57College of William and Mary1,5009$8k1.04$97.4k58Colorado College50011$11k1.04$314.5k59University of Texas at Austin7,10015$15k1.04$72.5k60Washington & Jefferson College30021$21k1.03$100.7k61Colby College5009$8k1.03$362.6k62Reed College40014$13k1.03$385.6k63Wheaton College (Illinois)50016$16k1.03$139.1k64Claremont McKenna College30012$12k1.03$543.2k65Georgia Tech2,70011$11k1.02$78.8k66St. Mary's College of Maryland40013$13k1.02$17.8k67Mount Holyoke College50015$15k1.02$300.8k68University of Maryland-College Park4,00011$11k1.02$15.1k69University of Rochester1,50016$17k1.02$185.7k70Brandeis University80017$18k1.01$130.7k71SUNY College at Geneseo1,10014$14k1$5.3k72Johns Hopkins University1,40012$13k1$149.3k73Carleton College50013$14k1$390.8k74Clemson University3,30013$14k0.99$40.2k75Denison University60014$16k0.99$363k76Kalamazoo College50016$17k0.99$150.1k77Emory University1,90017$18k0.99$468.8k78Ohio State University-Main Campus7,10013$14k0.99$63.4k79Saint Johns University50016$17k0.99$94.5k80Cornell University3,20013$14k0.99$211.9k81Northwestern University2,00013$14k0.99$396.2k82Macalester College60014$16k0.98$387.9k83Siena College80019$21k0.98$42.6k84Tufts University1,30012$14k0.96$140.3k85University of New Hampshire-Main Campus2,90017$20k0.96$22.6k86St Lawrence University60016$19k0.95$117.5k87Hope College80015$18k0.95$59.5k88University of Virginia-Main Campus3,50011$13k0.94$252.6k89University of Southern California2,90017$19k0.94$121.7k90University of Notre Dame2,10010$13k0.94$684.4k91Juniata College40019$22k0.94$72.7k92Georgetown University1,60011$14k0.94$97.3k93University of Delaware4,20010$13k0.94$58.4k94University of Connecticut3,70013$16k0.94$14.1k95College of the Holy Cross70015$18k0.93$228.2k96Skidmore College70011$14k0.92$129.2k97Kenyon College5009$12k0.92$116.5k98Bryn Mawr College40011$15k0.92$493.9k99DePauw University60014$18k0.9$290.5k100Sewanee50013$17k0.9$209.2k101Virginia Tech5,40011$15k0.9$25.4k102James Madison University4,20011$15k0.89$4k103Wofford College40015$20k0.89$103.8k104Lawrence University40015$19k0.89$178.7k105Gettysburg College70012$16k0.89$111.7k106University of Wisconsin-Madison6,3009$14k0.89$86.2k107Bates College5009$13k0.88$147.5k108Willamette University50019$24k0.88$89.5k109Syracuse University3,50018$23k0.88$52.8k110College of New Jersey1,40013$18k0.87$4.2k111Stonehill College60016$21k0.87$81.4k112Clark University60019$24k0.86$111.7k113Illinois Wesleyan University50016$22k0.86$128.6k114Lehigh University1,20012$17k0.86$182.3k115Washington University in St. Louis1,6008$13k0.86$489.5k116Luther College60015$21k0.86$62.9k117Boston College2,30011$16k0.85$177.9k118Connecticut College50012$18k0.84$136.8k119Ursinus College40017$23k0.83$85.2k120Trinity University50011$18k0.82$485.9k121Babson College50013$20k0.82$107.1k122Wake Forest University1,2009$16k0.81$151.9k123Union College60010$17k0.8$172.5k124Bentley University1,00013$21k0.78$52.4k125Lafayette College6009$17k0.78$314.4k126Oberlin College8008$16k0.77$294.5k127Messiah College60014$22k0.77$40.1k128Dickinson College60010$18k0.76$167k129Whitman College40010$19k0.76$355.9k130Centre College40014$23k0.75$209.3k131Fairfield University1,00011$20k0.74$66.4k132Case Western Reserve University1,30014$24k0.73$179.2k133Rhodes College50012$22k0.72$162.3k134Muhlenberg College60010$20k0.72$92.9k135Stevens Institute of Technology60015$25k0.71$32.7k136Hobart William Smith Colleges60011$21k0.7$85.3k137American University1,60014$25k0.69$49.5k138Northeastern University2,90010$21k0.68$30.8k139University of Denver1,40012$23k0.68$43.6k140University of Portland80016$27k0.67$34.6k141Pepperdine University80014$25k0.66$104.1k142New York University5,20018$30k0.65$71.1k143Furman University80010$22k0.65$205.3k144Bucknell University90010$22k0.65$206.8k145Miami University (Ohio)3,6008$20k0.64$33.4k146Loyola University Maryland1,10013$25k0.64$38.1k147Marquette University2,00012$24k0.63$49.7k148Boston University3,80012$25k0.63$51.8k149Villanova University1,70011$24k0.63$55.6k150Carnegie Mellon University1,40010$23k0.62$109.9k151Santa Clara University1,30011$24k0.62$69.4k152Penn State University-Main Campus8,00011$24k0.62$39.1k153Ithaca College1,80014$28k0.61$42.3k154University of Dayton1,80010$24k0.6$48.2k155Rhode Island School of Design50014$28k0.6$132.9k156George Washington University2,30010$24k0.59$74.7k157University of Pittsburgh4,00011$24k0.59$120.2k158Providence College1,00011$25k0.59$46.8k159Fordham University1,90014$29k0.58$43.5k160Southern Methodist University1,4009$23k0.57$145.8k161Gonzaga University1,20012$28k0.55$30.5k162Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute1,40012$28k0.54$94.4k163University of Miami2,10012$28k0.54$52.5k164Marist College1,10011$27k0.52$9.6k165Worcester Polytechnic Institute1,10010$29k0.44$103.3k166Quinnipiac University1,80011$31k0.42$41.2k167Bryant University90011$30k0.42$48.5k168Elon University1,5006$26k0.38$34.7k169Saint Joseph's University1,3008$29k0.36$28.7k170Emerson College90013$35k0.35$31.8k171University of Puget Sound70010$34k0.28$129.8k
How To Use the New York Times Digital Subscription

Where the top 1% and the bottom 20% go to college

Private Nonprofit




insufficient data

Not Attending College

at ages 19−22

L.A. Com. College District

Where the top 1% and the bottom 20% go to college

Private Nonprofit


Not Attending College

at ages 19−22



insufficient data

L.A. Com. College District

Where the top 1% and the bottom

20% go to college

Private Nonprofit


Not Attending College

at ages 19−22



insufficient data

Students at elite colleges are even richer than experts realized, according to a new study based on millions of anonymous tax filings and tuition records.

At 38 colleges in America, including five in the Ivy League – Dartmouth, Princeton, Yale, Penn and Brown – more students came from the top 1 percent of the income scale than from the entire bottom 60 percent.

38 colleges had more students from the top 1 percent than the bottom 60 percent

Add your favorite colleges to the tables in this article:

Roughly one in four of the richest students attend an elite college – universities that typically cluster toward the top of annual rankings (you can find more on our definition of “elite” at the bottom).

In contrast, less than one-half of 1 percent of children from the bottom fifth of American families attend an elite college; less than half attend any college at all.

Where today’s 25-year-olds went to college, grouped by their parents’ income

About four in 10 students from the top 0.1 percent attend an Ivy League or elite university, roughly equivalent to the share of students from poor families who attend any two- or four-year college.

Colleges often promote their role in helping poorer students rise in life, and their commitments to affordability. But some elite colleges have focused more on being affordable to low-income families than on expanding access. “Free tuition only helps if you can get in,” said Danny Yagan, an assistant professor of economics at the University of California, Berkeley, and one of the authors of the study.

The study – by Raj Chetty,John Friedman,Emmanuel Saez,Nicholas Turner and Mr. Yagan – provides the most comprehensive look at how well or how poorly colleges have built an economically diverse student body. The researchers tracked about 30 million students born between 1980 and 1991, linking anonymized tax returns to attendance records from nearly every college in the country.

We’re offering detailed information on each of more than 2,000 American colleges on separate pages. See how your college compares – by clicking any college name like Harvard, U.C.L.A., Penn State, Texas A&M or Northern Virginia Community College – or search for schools that interest you.

At elite colleges, the share of students from the bottom 40 percent has remained mostly flat for a decade. Access to top colleges has not changed much, at least when measured in quintiles. (The poor have gotten poorer over that time, and the very rich have gotten richer.)

Access to top colleges has not changed much

Previously, the most widely available data on the economic makeup of college students came from government statistics on Pell grants. Those grants typically go to students in the bottom 40 percent of the income distribution. The government data categorizes students as qualifying for Pell grants or not, but does not distinguish between students who just miss the cutoff and those whose families make much more money.

The Obama administration and Congress have expanded Pell eligibility, which caused the number of Pell recipients at many colleges to rise. Some elite colleges pointed to this increase as a sign that they took economic diversity much more seriously than in the recent past.

But the new estimates show that much of the increase in Pell recipients stems from the expansion of the program. The students at elite colleges, at least as of 2013, were not actually much more economically diverse than in the past, though there are some exceptions.

Elite colleges that enroll the highest percentage of low- and middle-income students

These patterns are important because previous research has found that there are many highly qualified lower-income students who do not attend selective colleges – and because the low- and middle-income students who do attend top colleges fare almost as well as rich students.

Even though they face challenges that other students do not, lower-income students end up earning almost as much on average as affluent students who attend the same college.

Look at the remarkably relative flatness of the colored lines below. An affluent student who attends one of 12 “Ivy plus” universities (the Ivy League colleges, Duke, M.I.T., Stanford and the University of Chicago) ends up around the 80th percentile of the income distribution on average. A lower-income student who attends one of those colleges ends up around the 75th percentile. Lower-income students who attend less elite colleges also have outcomes similar to others from the same college.

Poor students who attend top colleges do about as well as their rich classmates

Poor children at elite colleges ended up at about the 75th percentile.

Their rich classmates fared only a little better.

In general, parent income is a strong predictor of child income.

By contrast, the steeper gray line shows outcomes for the entire American population. Most students who grow up poor remain poor as adults, and most students who grow up affluent remain affluent.

The data above covers children born between 1980 and 1982, who are around 35 years old today. Most Americans remain in a similar place on the income distribution from their late 30s through the end of their careers, previous studies have found, so the highest-earning 36-year-olds are likely to become the highest-earning 60-year-olds, at least on average.

Even though most lower-income students fare well at elite colleges, there are relatively few of them there, so less elite colleges may be more important engines of social mobility. The researchers developed a new statistic they call a college’s mobility rate, which combines a college’s share of students from lower-income families with its success at propelling them into the upper part of the distribution.

Colleges with the highest mobility rate, from the bottom 40 percent to the top 40 percent

The mobility rate captures the share of all students at a given college who both came from a lower-income family and ended up in a higher-income family. The top of this list is dominated not by elite colleges, but by mid-tier public ones, including the colleges that make up the City University of New York.

A separate column looks at working-class colleges in more detail.


Now discussing:

2017 College Access Index Methodology

This year’sCollege Access Index — a measure of economic diversity at top colleges — has almost precisely the same methodology as last year’s. This year’s version is the third annual. The first was published early in the 2014-15 academic year, and the second early in the 2015-16 year.

We examined colleges with a five-year graduation rate of at least 75 percent. Roughly 170 colleges nationwide met this standard. For these colleges, we collected three main kinds of data to produce the ranking.

The first is the share of entering freshman who receive Pell Grants, the large federal financial-aid program. It typically helps students coming from the bottom 50 percent of the income distribution (and most Pell recipients are in the bottom 40 percent).

We then multiplied the share of Pell students by the graduation rate for Pell recipients. The resulting number captures the share of a college’s entering class that is low-income and can be expected to graduate. The number led to one half of a college’s index number.

The other half came from the average price — tuition, fees, room and board, net of financial aid — that the college charged students from families with annual income between $30,000 and $75,000.

Together, the index measures how many lower-income students graduate from a college and how much they must pay to attend it.

These statistics remain the only apples-to-apples statistics that most colleges have been willing to release (because the federal government mandates it). If colleges released more detailed statistics — such as an annual breakdown of their student body into comparable income buckets, rather than based only on the Pell cutoff — we would use them in our analysis. (More detailed statistics do exist, but they are at least five years old.)

One other point: Officials at some public colleges with declining Pell shares argued that the main reason was the improvement in the economy over the past few years, which they say had made fewer students eligible. But after talking with economists and looking at the data, I’m skeptical of that explanation.

For one thing, incomes haven’t risen that much in the past few years. For another, the Pell shares at private colleges have held steady on average. The economic improvement may well have played a small role in the declining Pell shares at some public colleges, but other factors, such as declining state support, have played a bigger role, as my column explains.

Below, we offer more details on the calculations.

Share of first-year students receiving Pell Grants. Students’ eligibility for Pell Grants depends on their family’s income, family size, the number of other children in college and other financial factors. Most students from households earning less than $50,000 receive a Pell grant. A substantial number from households earning between $70,000 and $100,000 also do.

The Department of Education publishes data for each college on the share of first-year, full-time students receiving Pell Grants, with the most recent year available typically being 2014-15. We requested 2015-16 data from each college in the index, and most provided it.

For those that did, the 2014-15 share accounted for 40 percent of their raw Pell score; 2013-14 accounted for 30 percent; 2012-13 accounted for 20 percent; and 2011-12 accounted for 10 percent. For those colleges that did not provide the 2014-15 number, we used the previous three years, with the same 3-2-1 weighting.

The goal is to make the most recent year count most heavily but to avoid allowing any single data point to dominate.

Graduation rate. The Higher Education Act (as amended in 2008) requires that colleges disclose the graduation rate for students with Pell Grants. But it does not require the Education Department to collect or publish this data.

We asked each college in our index to provide us with graduation rates for the first-time full-time cohort that entered in the fall of 2009 — the six-year graduation rate for both Pell students and all students. Most but not all colleges provided the data. The Pell and overall graduation were strikingly similar on the whole, which is good news. Lower-income students who enroll at most top colleges graduate at almost the same rate as upper-income students.

For colleges that provided the Pell graduation rate, we multiplied the six-year rate times its Pell share to arrive at an adjusted Pell score. For example, a college with 15 percent of freshmen receiving Pell grants and a Pell graduation rate of 80 percent would receive a Pell score of 12 percent — signifying that 12 percent of first-year students were both Pell recipients and likely to graduate.

For colleges that did not provide a Pell graduation rate, we used overall graduation rate, deflated to adjust for the difference between overall and Pell graduation rates. We used the 25th percentile of the Pell/overall ratio, in an effort to ensure that colleges would not benefit by declining to provide their Pell graduation rate.

Net price. The Education Department publishes net price data, by income group, for students who receive Title IV federal aid (as most financial-aid students do). As with the Pell data, it has limitations. A more complete data set would provide net-price data for all students, not just those receiving Title IV aid, and would give more detailed statistics than only the average for each income group.

Yet the net price nonetheless captures the differences between colleges that offer nearly full scholarships to lower-income students and those that charge such students tens of thousands of dollars a year.

We used the same weighting for the past four years of data as we did for Pell Grants, with the most recent year counting most.

We then took an average of the net price for students from two groups: families with annual income between $30,000 and $48,000, and those with income between $48,001 and $75,000. (Federal rules set the cutoffs for these groups.)

For readers interested in looking up data on net price, Pell Grants, overall graduation rates and many other subjects, the Education Department’s College Navigator website is a useful resource. For those interested in downloading data for many colleges, the IPEDS website is better.

College Access Index. Once we calculated an adjusted Pell share and a net price for each college, we then calculated an average of each number for all colleges. Each college’s adjusted Pell share was then compared with the average Pell share, and each net price was compared with the average net price. These two comparisons were combined to create the index.

An index value of 1 is average. A value higher than 1 suggests a greater commitment to economic diversity.

I welcome feedback, on Facebook, Twitter or by email, at [email protected]


294 295 296 297 298