Skam season 2

Skam season 2 DEFAULT

Skam English

azstudigital asked:

In season 3, episode 8, Mahdi, Jonas, Magnus, and Isak are talking in the hallway at school (the 12 minute mark on the video). Even walks up to them. Isak is visually uncomfortable and introduces Even to his friends. After Even shakes hands with the guys he mouths something to Isak and Isak gets a big smile on his face. I don't think Even is sending Isak a silent kiss. It looks like he is saying something. Do you know what he's saying? Thanks in advance.

Even just says kjipt - Too bad, when Mahdi says that Isak has one more class for the day.

Anonymous asked:

Hi! I just wanted to say a huge THANK YOU for all the work you're putting into this side! I've watched all of SKAM via your website and I'm so grateful for your brilliant subtitles and all the cultural background info you've assembled. Have a lovely day and thanks so much again! :)

Knowing that people can watch and enjoy this extraordinary TV series makes it all worth it!

Anonymous asked:

Are you Norwegian or Swedish?

soph-scribbles asked:

Where can you buy Skam? Or is it all just online websites and downloads?

SKAM was originally made by NRK, the Norwegian public broadcaster, and has always been available for free for anyone in Norway. The show was licensed to the other Nordic public broadcasters through Nordvision and available for some time in those countries, but that’s pretty much it.

It’s not available anywhere else, and the reason is that the cost of the music licensing would be astronomical, so no-one else is bothering.

Some of the remakes are commercially available, SKAM España is distributed by Movistar, SKAM Italia by Netflix Italy, and SKAM Austin by Facebook, but the rest were made and distributed by various public service broadcasters and are therefore only really available in the countries they’re from.

Subtext and Culture, Young Royals, What’s in a name?

I thought I was done, but I have material for one more post. I want to write more about how royal names work, because I’ve seen a lot of confusion and simple lack of knowledge in the tags, so think of this as more of an informative culture post than an analysis post of the show.

European royals and nobles have styles, names, titles, and houses. In addition, monarchs have regnal names.

A style is how you formally address someone, based on their rank and title. In Sweden, the only styles left are “majesty” and “royal higness”, where kings and queens are addressed as “your majesty”, and select members of the royal family are addressed as “your royal highness”. In Swedish, these styles are often abbreviated as H.M. - Hans/Hennes Majestät and H.K.H. - Hans/Hennes Kungliga Höghet. In English, the abbreviations are HM and HRH.

In the show, you can see this when Simon meets the Queen, and shakily addresses her as “Your Majesty”, or when Minou calls up August and says “Her Majesty the Queen has resolved your problems with the school fee”.

In less formal, but still polite speech, you would use third person addressing when talking to or about the royals, and there are numerous examples of this in the show:

Anette to Erik: “How nice to see the crown prince again!”

Some aide to Wilhelm: “Could we get a shot of the prince shaking hands with the headmistress?”

Anette: “Wilhelm, sorry, the crown prince, how nice the memorial was!”

August: “The queen has asked me, personally, to take care of him.”

Malin: “I just wanted to remind the crown prince that breakfast closes in five minutes.”

Names for royals and nobles work just like the rest of us, but with one exception: Royals generally do not use last names, while lesser nobles do. They also tend to have several first names, and while they generally pick names for their children based on trends in society, they stay on the traditional conservative side, and they often pick names from their family history.

The show only tells us one first name for each member of the royal family: Kristina, Ludvig, Erik, and Wilhelm, so we have no idea what other names they might have.

In the real world, the name of the king of Sweden is Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus, the crown princess’ name is Victoria Ingrid Alice Désirée, and her oldest daughter’s name is Estelle Silvia Ewa Mary, just to give you some flavour of what it could look like.

Titles are what sets higher nobles apart from us mere commoners, and have their origin in the feudal system of medieval Europe, which was a hierarchical socio-economic-military system where the lord of a land could grant a portion of his land, a fief, to a vassal in exchange for fealty - loyalty, taxes, and military service. Doing so would create a title, it would make the vassal a noble of a lower rank than his lord, because you could only create titles lower than the one you possessed. So, in general, kings could create dukes or lower, dukes could create counts or lower, and counts could create barons. The fief of a duke is called a duchy, a count ruled over a county, and a baron over a barony, although there were more ranks and more titles than that, depending on region and language, but those are the main ones.

Every single squabble or conflict or battle or civil war or war fought in the middle ages was over the titles, because the titles legally conferred ownership of a piece of land, and with it the rights of taxation and the economic value of that land. Over time, kingdoms got more centralized and the hierarchical nature of the system broke down, while the titles became more hereditary, and ownership of the land became less important, which meant that minor nobles lost the power to create vassals and fiefs, while the power to create titles was reserved for the monarchs, and titles created in this era usually only granted people a title for an area or a castle or a manor house that they already owned.

Going into modern times, European countries curbed title creation, but generally kept protections for existing titles and allowing them to be inherited according to whatever inheritance rules applied to each title. But if a title holder dies without a legal heir, the title is lost forever, which means that most modern day noble families want to make sure their title, their history, their legacy can survive long into the future. Also note that one person can hold several titles, and each of those titles can be inherited individually and under different rules.

In Sweden, there are currently 46 comital families (greve/grevinna - count/countess), 131 baronial families (friherre/friherrinna - baron/baroness), and 484 untitled lower noble families. There are no independent ducal families, instead the monarch grants royal children a ceremonial duchy at birth, for one of the 25 historical provinces of Sweden. This means that every single member of the Swedish royal family is a prince or princess of Sweden, and also duke or duchess of some province.

Again, we have no idea what province Wilhelm is the duke of in the show, while for example in the real Sweden, Princess Estelle is the duchess of Östergötland, Prince Carl Philip is duke of Värmland, and Princess Leonore is duchess of Gotland.

A noble house is a noble family or clan that is associated with one or more hereditary titles. Noble houses were founded when someone was ennobled and granted a title, and a noble house can branch and wither and split and form new houses over the ages, and it can gain or lose status as its members gain or lose noble titles and ranks.

In medieval times, these family bonds were very strong, and many major conflicts were a result of different houses fighting over various titles, for example the Wars of the Roses was a 32 year long civil war over the throne of England between the House of York and the House of Lancaster.

A royal house is a noble house that holds a title of king or queen, and for members of the royal family, their house name is what they have instead of a normal last name. We don’t know which royal house Wilhelm belongs to in the show, but the current royal house of Sweden is the House of Bernadotte, named after the French rando we imported that I wrote about in the last post. Other houses that have been the royal house of Sweden throughout history include the House of Holstein-Gottorp, the House of Oldenburg, and the House of Vasa.

Finally, a regnal name is a name that a reigning monarch chooses for themselves when they ascend the throne, and it consists of one or more of their first names, and a roman numeral ordinal if there have been previous kings or queens with that name. If you’re the first of your name to rule over a kingdom, you can choose to call yourself “the first”, or you can choose not to.

In the show, Kristina doesn’t appear to have an ordinal, but in real life Sweden there was a Queen Kristina who reigned in the middle of the 1600’s. (She was probably a lesbian, caused the death of French philosopher René Descartes, abdicated in favour of her cousin, and moved to Rome and converted to Catholicism. As you do.)

In the real world, the king of Sweden reigns under the name Carl XVI Gustaf, because he’s the sixteenth (tenth, actually) Karl to have been king of Sweden, and he also picked his second name because he liked it, or because he wanted to stand out from the fifteen other Karls who preceded him. His regnal name is pronounced Carl den sextonde Gustaf - Carl the sixteenth Gustaf.

Putting all of this together, the styles, the names, the titles, and the houses, and we can finally get the full formal names of various royals. Here are examples from some European royal families to demonstrate what it can look like:

  • HRH Madeleine Thérèse Amelie Josephine, Princess of Sweden, Duchess of Hälsingland and Gästrikland, of house Bernadotte.
  • HH Felix Henrik Valdemar Christian, Prince of Denmark, Count of Monpezat, of house Glücksburg.
  • HRH Ingrid Alexandra, Princess of Norway, of house Glücksburg.
  • HRH Prince William Arthur Philip Louis, Duke of Cambridge, of house Windsor.
  • HRH Catharina-Amalia Beatrix Carmen Victoria, Princess of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange, of house Orange-Nassau
  • HRH Emmanuel Léopold Guillaume François Marie, Prince of Belgium, of house Belgium.
  • HRH Infanta Sofía de Todos los Santos de Borbón y Ortiz, of house Bourbon.

These names are quite the mouthful, and the full names and styles are only used in very formal settings. Normally, these people are referred to with their highest title, and their chosen first names, i.e. Princess Madeleine, Prince Felix, Princess Ingrid Alexandra, Prince William, Princess Catharina-Amalia, Prince Emmanuel, and Infanta Sofía.

We only have the short name of Wilhelm, i.e. Prince Wilhelm, in the show. We don’t have his full name, but if it follows form, he would be HRH Wilhelm <Name> <Name> <Name>, Prince of Sweden, Duke of <Province>, of house <House>.

Note that Wilhelm’s father is not a king, he’s a prince-consort, since Wilhelm’s mother is the reigning monarch. The proper styles for his parents would be Her Majesty Queen Kristina (II?), and His Royal Highness Prince Ludvig.

The only other nobles in the show we have full names for is August and Felice, and August’s full name would be August <Name?> Horn, Count (or Baron) of Årnäs. Felice’s would be just Felice <Name?> Ehrencrona, because her parents are still alive and still hold whatever title they have.

Commoners marrying into a royal family is no longer forbidden or controversial, and all European royal families have had commoners marrying into them in the past few generations.

Based on precedence, if Wilhelm and Simon were to get back together and marry in the future, and if they get the consent of the Queen and the government, the following would happen:

  • Simon would be offered to be made a prince of Sweden, and with it gain the style of HRH.
  • Simon would be offered to be made a duke of some province.
  • If he accepts, he would lose his last name, and go from Simon Eriksson to HRH Simon, Prince of Sweden, Duke of <Province>, or simply Prince Simon.
  • If he declines, he would stay as Mr. Simon Eriksson.

When/If Wilhelm ascends the throne, he would chose a regnal name, and get an ordinal depending on the number of Wilhelms before him. If he’s the first of his name, he would simply be King Wilhelm.

And if he and Simon are married when he ascends, Simon would not become king, he would become a prince-consort, and keep the title of prince.

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Subtext and Culture, Young Royals, Heir today, gone tomorrow?

I’ve read a lot of theories and speculation about what the ending of the show means, the Revolution song, and what Wilhelm (and Simon) should and should not do in the next season, and it’s pretty clear that a lot of you don’t really know how a monarchy works, so the point of this post is to go over the actual options and possibilities for Wilhelm with regards to being crown prince and not straight.

Sweden is a constitutional monarchy, which means that the rules of the monarchy are governed by law, by the constitution. Some constitutional monarchies like The Vatican or Malaysia are elective monarchies where each successive monarch is elected somehow. However, Sweden, like all other European monarchies, is a hereditary monarchy, which means that when the current monarch dies or abdicates, the crown passes to the next-in-line heir. Because Sweden is a kingdom, the title of this person is Crown Prince or Crown Princess.

All hereditary monarchies are typically anchored at some ancestor, and the constitution then says that the title of monarch belongs to this person’s heirs. For example, in the United Kingdom, its Act of Settlement of 1701 anchored their line of succession on Sophia of Hanover, and since she lived quite long ago, she has thousands of heirs, and all of them are actually in line for the British throne.

In the early 1800’s, Swedish king Gustaf IV Adolf sided against France and Russia in the Napoleonic wars, which led to Sweden losing wars and eventually losing the entire eastern half of Sweden, also known as Finland. The king got so unpopular that he was deposed by the nobility and parliament, and the crown went to his uncle, Karl XIII. However, he was childless, so Sweden was now without an heir to the throne.

Through politics and shenanigans and the wish for a strong military leader, parliament finally selected some random dude: Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, a marshal in the French army who had been made prince of Ponte Corvo by Napoleon. The king formally adopted him as his son, and the constitution was changed with the introduction of the 1810 Act of Succession that anchored the Swedish throne to this newly formed House Bernadotte and its male heirs.

Another point that is important to understand is that the monarch of Sweden has no say over the constitution, it is in the hands of parliament, and ultimately, the people of Sweden. And in 1979 Sweden changed its constitution, moving from male-preference primogeniture to absolute primogeniture, stripping the second-born (but first-born son) Prince Carl Philip of his title as crown prince, and giving it to his older sister, now Crown Princess Victoria. Note that this was done even though the king was completely against it, because the monarch doesn’t make the rules of the monarchy.

When this change was made, Sweden also re-anchored the order of succession on Carl XVI Gustaf in order to remove the claims of female heirs who were previously passed over, and today the line of succession only contains eleven people: His three children and his eight grand-children.

So what are the rules for getting into and staying in the line of succession?

  1. You have to be an heir to the ancestor it’s anchored on. (§1)
  2. You have to be mainline protestant. (§4)
  3. You have to get the consent of both the government and the monarch to marry. (§5)
  4. You can’t inherit or be elected as head of state in any other country. (§8)

Those are all the rules according to the text of the constitution. Note that the text uses the Swedish term bröstarvinge in the preamble and efterkommande in the actual law. Bröstarvinge is a legal term which is defined in inheritance law as your biological and adopted children, and efterkommande just means descendant and is not strictly defined. Nowhere in the text does it say that heirs have to be born in wedlock! Or that the monarch has to marry someone of the opposite sex! Or that the monarch even has to be married!

Since the law was written in 1810, the spirit of the law is obviously that princes and princesses of Sweden should marry someone of the opposite sex and have trueborn noble children like good little heterosexual monogamous Christians, and certainly not be in a scandalous same-sex relationship, or father bastards, or adopt children.

But the letter of the law allows it. 😈

So one possible future for Wilhelm is that he marries Simon with consent from the Queen, has kids either through insemination, or surrogacy, or an affair, or some polyamorous throuple, or adoption or whatever, and those kids would be legal heirs to the throne, thus securing the monarchy for another generation. Might make for some funny family photos with King Wilhelm I, his husband Prince Simon, their children, and miss Fredrika, Mother of the Royal Children or something. Or maybe you have to make her a princess at least? I don’t know!

I’m not saying this future is without problems, there are definitely people who would oppose it strongly for homophobic reasons, it would trigger a constitutional crisis and national debate on if this is the way the monarchy should and could go, and anti-monarchists would of course seize the opportunity to argue for scrapping the whole thing.

Another possible future for Wilhelm is that he renounces his position in the line of succession, because you can always decline. You can always say no to your royal duty, but doing so means you lose your titles and your royal privileges. If the succession is anchored on Kristina, this would leave Sweden without an heir, also triggering a constitutional crisis that might end the monarchy. Or, in this scenario, you could also allow for searching for an heir among the extended family, making any cousins or second cousins eligible to inherit the throne. For example August. (That would make some lovely season 2 drama!)

A boring possible future is that everyone completely ignores the problem. Wilhelm and Simon keep having a relationship in secret, Wilhelm ascends the throne and just… never marries or has children. Maintaining the image of being straight, while the open secret that he’s in a relationship with a guy is never publicly confirmed or addressed, which just kicks the constitutional crisis can down the road a couple of decades.

A fourth possible future is that Wilhelm’s coming out immediately triggers a constitutional crisis, and the people of Sweden simply say fuck it and decide to abolish the monarchy. Wilhelm will never be king, Simon will never be prince, but at least they would be completely free to live their lives as they want.

Note that Wilhelm’s options are actually pretty limited. Neither he nor his mother the Queen have any power to alter the rules of succession. It all comes down to whether or not parliament, and ultimately the people, accept Wilhelm as he is.

Also note that actual revolution is not really a possible future, no matter how catchy the soundtrack is. Why would the people of Sweden violently overthrow the government because Wilhelm comes out? Every possible future results in a constitutional crisis though, Wilhelm isn’t wrong in episode 6 when he asks Simon if he understands what kind of a shitstorm him coming out would result in, because that is the only thing that is certain to happen. And I really hope we get a season 2 and that these scenarios are explored there!

Addendum: Had a great discussion with @waybeforeyourtime in the comments and she pointed out that the word äkta - legitimate - actually appears in the preamble. This is true, but the very long and very flowery and extremely run-on legalese sentence it is part of goes something like this: (heavily paraphrased)

“We, the parliament who are gathered here today, are writing this act of succession for the benefit of the legitimate male heirs of Johan Baptist Julius, Prince of Ponte Corvo, and here are the rules:”

…and then they start listing the paragraphs of the actual law. But they never mention “legitimate” again. The original first paragraph only talks about “heirs” and “sons”, and the 1979 version only talks about “male and female descendants”.

So it was absolutely the intent of the original lawmakers that only legitimate male heirs conceived in wedlock were meant to inherit, but they didn’t actually write it down in the law itself! Maybe if they’d spent less time writing about the “life-fruit” of queens in “delicate condition” - the original second paragraph is a hoot! - they could have spent some time specifying that heirs had to be legitimate, but they didn’t!

The letter of the law says one thing, the spirit of the law says another thing, so you can argue the case either way. In the end though, the only thing that matters is what parliament and the people want.

Subtext and Culture, Young Royals, Season 1, Episode 6

We’re picking up after Lucia, after the sex tape was posted to the internet, and the news has spread all over…

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Lost in translation: The subtitles can’t keep up with all the comments floating across the screen, but they say:

“But OMFG I’m dyying!!!”

“How will the monarchy survive this?”

“Royal porn! 🔥🔥🔥”

“Finally some news that puts Sweden on the map! haha!”

“Poor boys. Feel sorry for them.”

“how clumsy to let someone record it! :-)”

“The end of the monarchy, time for Sweden to become a republic!”

“never been ashamed of being Swedish until now”

“I know where he lives! see you there!”

“Class traitor! Your mom cries for your sins”

“I think the video is fake”

“Love to the boys!”

“sexiest video the world has seen!”

Lost in translation: And the subtitles can’t keep up with the tabloid headlines either, which btw are hilariously close to what the real deal would look like:

“Here is the crown prince’s boyfriend”

“The video that shook the royal family”

“All the details about crown prince Wilhelm’s new love”

“[r]oyal family
[i]s crown prince
[w]ilhelm gay?”

“we want t[o know]
[is] it crown [prince]
[w]ilhelm in the v[ideo?]”

Subtext: The royal court is very much a PR machine, and here comes the Queen herself to do damage control and to make sure everyone plays their part, including the school.

Culture: All the tabloids are real, except the one that features the story about Wilhelm and Simon. The name of the tabloid, Sett & Hört (Seen & Heard) is a spoof of a tabloid that existed up until a couple of years ago called Se & Hör (See & Hear).

Cinematography: In this nice fixed shot, the Queen starts off in the chair, all business, talking about what Wilhelm must do to manage this scandal, but then she moves to the bed to comfort him and actually be a mom, caring for her son.

Subtext: Note that the Queen isn’t opposed to Wilhelm having a relationship with Simon in itself, and it’s completely not an issue that Wilhelm likes boys, her main focus is the sex tape and the attention and the PR of the situation.

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Blink and you miss it: Simon is casually stroking the picture of Wilhelm.

Subtext: Linda does everything she can to comfort her son, in stark contrast to how little comfort the Queen offered Wilhelm.

Subtext: And here’s the main motivation for all of Sara’s actions in this episode. She’s still wearing the expensive hairpins she got from Felice, she’s super happy having made real friends there, and now this scandal might result in her losing all of that, it might force her to go back to her old school where she was bullied, and she really doesn’t want to do that.

Culture: Fredrika is talking about how Wilhelm and Simon would be styled if they’re married when Wilhelm ascends the throne, but the current real-life king of Sweden is Carl XVI Gustaf, so it makes absolutely no sense that Wilhelm would be Carl XVII, because his name is not even Carl in the first place? I’m guessing the actors are ad-libbing here without knowing how any of this works.

(They would be styled King Wilhelm I and Prince Simon, if Wilhelm is the first of his name in this fictional Sweden.)

Subtext: None of the girls are really bothered by the fact that Wilhelm likes boys, and are busy speculating about how this would play out, and the idea that one of them could volunteer to be a surrogate mother to the next monarch is fresh and exciting to them.

I will be talking about the actual consequences and possibilities in case the only heir to the throne would be in a same-sex relationship in my next post, because I have a lot more to say about that!

Subtext: Also no homophobia in the boys’ house. Walter and Henry are talking about how they should have picked up on Wilhelm and Simon’s flirting with each other, while Vincent and Nils are concerned about which asshole took the video in the first place, and August is unusually quiet…

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Culture: The Christmas season traditionally starts on the First Advent in Sweden, and in Simon’s house we can see they’ve put up a traditional advent star and a seven-armed candelabra in the window.

Subtext: Everyone at Marieberg recognized Simon from the video, and there’s apparently surprisingly little homophobia there as well.

Subtext: Rosh has nothing but contempt for the upper class, and that’s the “them” she’s talking about here. She’s lumping Wilhelm together with the rest of the rich kids at Hillerska, and blames all of them for this happening to her friend.

Subtext: Not even the villain is homophobic! Yes, August’s body language tells us that he is incredibly ashamed for leaking the video, but he is also earnest here.

Cinematography:Orange and Teal! But it actually works very well here, Wilhelm seems to almost blend into the background, as if he wants to disappear and be invisible, to not have all this attention on him. But Simon is his colour opposite in this scene, making him stand out 100%, because that’s how Simon wants to live his life, fully open and visible.

Subtext: Simon stating the obvious here, it’s unfair these two kids have to deal with this situation, only because Wilhelm is royal, but it’s not their fault. And this line is also a reminder to us, the audience, that their love isn’t wrong in any way.

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Subtext: August’s idea of helping Wilhelm is to make sure he gets accultured into the upper class, getting him to accept his fate and position as a member of the royal family, instead of actively rejecting the status and the position and wanting to live a normal life.

Subtext: None of the upper class kids give a shit about how any of this affects Simon, which is why August looks confused here. All of their attention is on how this affects Wilhelm, the royal family, and the monarchy, because that’s what’s important to them.

Subtext: Even though Sara initiates making out with August, she’s clearly having second thoughts about the whole thing here.

Subtext: Sara has a very black-and-white view of their childhood. In reality, it’s not that easy to break up and get out of a dysfunctional family. In hindsight, Linda should have broken up with Micke much earlier, but it seems she was willing to give him a chance…

Subtext: …which is clearly something Simon is willing to do as well, both when it came to his dad, and when it comes to trusting that Wilhelm will do the right thing here.

Subtext: Sara is still wearing the hairpins, and also the dress she got from Felice. She tried to have a proper family dinner, she has the stuff, she blackmailed August to make sure she gets to stay at the school no matter what, but she clearly sees her limitations, that she might not have what it takes to blend in among the other upper class kids.

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Cinematography: The show really likes this mirror shot of Wilhelm’s room. Last time we saw this, he was all alone on his bed, but this time he’s being comforted by Simon.

Subtext: Simon is obviously pleased that he has convinced Wilhelm to handle the thing the right way, that he shouldn’t deny it’s him in the video.

Subtext: The Queen could have completely ignored Simon, after all, she did tell Wilhelm not to see him, which he obviously did anyway. But she does greet him, she acknowledges him, because she actually wants to see this other boy that her son is having a relationship with.

Subtext: Again, the show highlights how all the royals are trapped by the institution, they’re not free to live their lives as they want. All their privileges come at a steep personal cost.

Subtext: For Kristina, the answer is that it *is* worth it. The privileges of being Queen, of continuing the traditions and keeping the history and legacy of the royal family is worth whatever price she has had to pay for it, and she thinks Wilhelm would regret making the opposite choice.

Subtext: Wilhelm’s statement is textbook bland politically correct PR-speak, and it’s also a complete lie, because Wilhelm is *not* allowed to live as whatever he wants. He’s just paying lip service to the idea of diversity and freedom, but it doesn’t actually apply to him.

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Subtext: For Wilhelm, this arrangement is nothing special. Maintaining a certain public image while hiding large parts of your private life is just the way his upper class world works, everyone does it. But for Simon, this is a class difference he can’t accept.

Culture: He’s not wrong, Wilhelm coming out would inevitably trigger a political constitutional crisis in Sweden.

Blink and you miss it: When Felice shows Wilhelm the sex tape, he flinches. Both because it reminds him of the good times with Simon, who just broke up with him, and because it’s actually pretty embarrassing to watch a friend watching your sex tape.

Subtext: Wilhelm doesn’t have any power to exclude August right now, but in time, Wilhelm will be king, which changes things.

Subtext: If the Queen has known for a couple of days, it means that she knew it was August when she picked Wilhelm up and convinced him to deny the video, and she did it anyway…

Subtext: …because to her, preserving the monarchy is the most important thing, more important than the feelings and well-being of her own child.

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Culture: Simon and the choir are singing “The Star of Betlehem”, a Christmas song based on a poem from 1891 by author Viktor Rydberg. It was popularized in a song by composer Alice Tegnér in 1893, but Simon is singing the less known version made by composer Ivar Widéen in 1917.

1893 version: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IoP5irjh-C8
1916 version: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GgXf1QibJ74

Subtext: August doesn’t know how Wilhelm found out that he leaked the video, and Sara doesn’t know that Wilhelm knows and that her deal with August is off, so here’s some excellent drama fodder for season 2!

Subtext: It’s important to understand that this scene does not take place in public. It’s the private end of the year event for the school, and everyone attending already knows that Wilhelm and Simon were in a relationship. But what Wilhelm is doing by hugging Simon is that he’s confirming that it was him in the video, and he’s contradicting the public statement he made earlier. To him, this is a small step towards being open about his love for Simon, but it’s not enough.

Cinematography: Finally, the show ends with a lovely book-end of Wilhelm breaking he fourth wall and staring at us, just like the show started. But this time he’s angrier and sadder, because in the beginning, public scrutiny forced him to attend a school he wasn’t interested in, but now, all the attention and scrutiny made him lose Simon, the boy he loves.

Subtext and Culture, Young Royals, Season 1, Episode 5

This episode picks up after our boys’ early early morning wink wonk session that August recorded and Malin definitely overheard, but never mind that for now, because we need to talk about what the hell this Lucia thing is.

Culture: Given how far north Sweden and the rest of the Nordic countries are located, midwinter, the darkest day of the year is pretty damn dark. In Stockholm you only get a few hours of daylight, and if you go far enough north in the country, the sun doesn’t even rise. Naturally, this day has been special since ancient times, and both been feared, because of the darkness, and celebrated, because it’s when the year turns and the days start becoming longer again.

Christianity has a long and proud tradition of co-opting existing pagan holidays, and the early church started pretending that the day was actually in celebration of some Christian saint, Saint Lucia of Syracuse who was martyred in the year 304 AD. Since her name means light, it was fittingly symbolic to imagine her as the bringer of light on this darkest day.

In the 1300’s, before the shift from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar, midwinter occurred on December 13th. After the calendar shift, and after a couple of centuries of date drifting, midwinter now usually occurs on December 22nd, but the date and the celebration of Saint Lucia was stuck on December 13th.

In Sweden, the modern form of the celebration started about 120 years ago and consists of a choir doing a procession and singing about the saint, with one person acting as Lucia herself, the rest of the girls dressed as her attendant maids, and the boys dressed similarly. The white robes are supposed to be baptismal robes, the red sash represents the blood she shed as she died, and the lights in her crown is her saint’s halo, the light that she brings on this darkest day.

In the 1920’s the celebration got a popularity boost when some magazine started a beauty contest where the winner was crowned Lucia, many cities started doing the same, and since the 1970’s there’s also been a national version of the thing with some girl being selected as Lucia for all of Sweden.

Every school and every kindergarten does the same, but as you go down in age, the real candles are replaced with battery-powered ones that won’t accidentally set someone’s hair on fire, and the selection process gets substantially more relaxed. Schools typically don’t care very much about the gender requirement, and kindergartens don’t really care about the number requirement either, so if five girls and three boys all want to be Lucia, well, there you go, plastic light-crowns for everybody! Doesn’t matter, their parents will still show up and film the terrible off-key singing and cry about how cute their little angels look.

Makes sense? No? Whatever, let’s go back to the boys in bed:

image

Subtext: Malin knows, and she decided to interrupt the boys before they start having sex again, because they actually need to get to class.

Blink and you miss it: The purple broken pixels are clearly visible already in the title montage of August’s video.

Culture:Knäckebröd or crispbread is very common in the Nordics, and we’re trying to export it, but with limited success.

Subtext: Yeah, where is Alexander? We know that August was looking for him at the end of episode 4, but we still don’t know what happened to him.

Blink and you miss it: Stella and Fredrika are unironically and cheerfully doing their presentation on capital punishment, and arguing for it, when pretty much every single kid in their generation in the rest of the country would be completely against it.

Subtext: And finally we get to know what happened to Alexander, he was caught red-handed with all their drugs from the party. Wilhelm was sent to Hillerska to avoid scandals, so getting into a new one would be extremely embarrassing given his public statement in episode 1.

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Subtext: Privilege means that other people will just suck up to you without being asked, of course everyone thought the most popular girl should be Lucia, even though she didn’t actually want it…

Subtext: …while no-one even considered asking Sara if she wanted to run for Lucia, because a lower class non-boarding student like her couldn’t possibly have a chance.

Subtext: One way of interpreting this scene is that it just shows the difference between someone from a “well-adjusted” family like Felice, and someone from a dysfunctional family, like Sara. Another way is that this is when Sara accidentally teaches Felice that it’s ok to stand up to your parents and say no.

Subtext: They know. You have to be blind and deaf not to pick up on the fact that the prince and his boyfriend are having a romantic little walk along the water.

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Subtext: Sara is rubbing her thumb over the photo of August, just like every other character pining over someone else has done in this show…

Subtext: Even though Felice talks about how tired she is of her mom and the pressure she puts on her to perform and look good, she still poses with the dress and takes some photos for her instagram.

Subtext: Felice just casually gives Sara her hairpins, because they don’t mean much to her. They cost $250. Each.

Subtext: Dinner with the girls at the Manor House is the same as for the boys at Forest Ridge, stiff and formal, but the prayer is too much for Sara, so she looks around and is amused to see that the rest of them appear to be sincere.

Subtext: She knows.

Culture: For the five people left in the world who don’t know this: Simon’s fishes are named after Omar’s former FOOO bandmates. Olle - Oscar Molander, Felle - Felix Sandman, and Oski - Oscar Enestad.

image

Subtext: Yeah, or maybe Sara has a hard time expressing her feelings because she has Asperger’s, and not because her life line in her hand is short. I don’t think you need to be an expert at palmistry to figure that one out.

Subtext: Didn’t it, though, Sara? If it didn’t mean anything, why did you stroke the picture of him earlier in the episode?

Blink and you miss it: The writing on the leg says Frihet, Jämlikhet, Broderskap - Liberté, égalité, fraternité. Seems like their test is on the French Revolution, but if you need to write down things as basic as the motto, maybe you should have studied harder?

Subtext: August is unknowingly setting up his own downfall by reminding everyone of what the Society is about.

Blink and you miss it: Vincent is hilariously serious about getting someone to perform oral sex on the headmistress as a way to get out of trouble.

Subtext: August is a scheming little bitch, and has been prodding Wilhelm all episode since learning that Wilhelm and Simon have a thing, so this is just his way to try to break them up.

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Subtext: This piece of dialogue nicely foreshadows the next episode when it comes to dealing with the leaked sextape. Wilhelm wants to solve the problem one way, but circumstances force him another way.

Subtext: Simon consistently doesn’t give a shit about the monarchy, unlike everyone else at school. To him, his family and his reputation is just as important as that of Wilhelm and the royal family.

Blink and you miss it: The sextape video is chronologically out of order compared to the actual sequence of events. The first few photos are from episodes 1 and 2, while the workout pics and videos are from the beginning of episode 4. The best explanation is that everything appears in real-world chronological order, suggesting that the sex scene was shot during the shooting of episode 2.

Subtext: August doesn’t know what to do with the secret that Wilhelm and Simon are having sex, but he’s torn by his loyalty to the institution and his instincts to protect that, which is why he’s asking his friends if they can imagine Wilhelm being a good king.

Culture:Kronofogden is the Swedish name for this government agency, and it means something like the Crown Bailiff. The word fogde is from the early middle ages, and is really only used in this context in modern Swedish.

Subtext: August’s way of dealing with any issue seems to be to hit the gym, making his insecurities and body issues even worse.

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Subtext: The rules for rich people are different. Anyone else would be heavily punished for possession of drugs, Alexander’s family can afford great lawyers so he will at the most get a slap on the wrist. And sending troublesome family members abroad while waiting for the scandal to die down is a tried and true method of the upper classes.

Subtext: The kids in the Society have been playing at the whole loyalty and fealty thing, they’ve sworn an oath to the monarchy. Well, kids, your future king just demanded that you honour the oath you swore to him, so what are you going to do? As he says? Yeah, you’re damn right you are.

Cinematography: Even though this scene cuts between all the different boys in the Society, their dialogue works as a single piece, showing that they all rehearsed basically the same story. Does the headmistress believe them? Probably not, but image and deniability is everything, so Alexander goes under the bus.

Culture: Saffron and raisin buns, gingerbread cookies, and glögg - a kind of mulled wine, are very common at any christmas-y celebration in the Nordics.

Subtext: Felice’s mom is really a one-note kind of person, isn’t she? Her mother went to Hillerska and rode horses and got chosen as Lucia, she did the same, of course her daughter needs to be an exact copy of her and do the same things again! It’s tradition! Who cares about what Felice actually wants?

Subtext: And here, finally, Felice stands up to her mom, and starts doing her own thing.

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Subtext: August knows what he just did, which is why he looks guilty, but remember that Sara has no idea what August has been up to at this point in time.

Culture: And here, finally, we get to see the whole choir as attendants to Sara, as Lucia, the bride of Christ, with light in her hair.

Subtext: Even though Wilhelm took control of the Society and exposed August being broke, he only did it to protect Simon, and he actually made it up to August by taking care of his boarding fees. This of course makes Augusts betrayal even worse, because he realizes all of this during this phonecall.

Subtext: Here, finally, are the consequences of Simon’s secret visits to his dad. This betrayal only pushes Sara away from the rest of her family, and is one of the reasons of her actions in the next episode.

Lost in translation: The subtitles can’t keep up with all the messages on this fictional chan board where August leaked the sextape, but they say:

“OMG Have you seen this??
Shit the prince is gay!!!!”

“LOOOOOOOOOOL
OHHHHH CUUUUUTE
The royal house gets to fuck royal dick”

“AHAHAHAHAAAA What a fag! Who’s the other guy?”

“Royal porn!!! :)”

“But OMFG I’m dying!!!”

“Sexiest thing I’ve seen!!! <3”

“Love it <3 <3 <3”

Blink and you miss it: Wilhelm starts having a panic attack just as the episode ends.

Anonymous asked:

Hi :) I'm watching for like the third time and each time I see the first episode I wonder why its such a big deal to get the booze for the party. Are they really strict about minors drinking in Sweden? Why is Micke a dealer? Is it difficult to get alcohol in Sweden in general? Its mentioned that they did checks at the school to prep for Wille but apart from that I cant figure out why getting alcohol was hard for them. Maybe Im just used to American media where they don't mention issues like this

Wait, didn’t I write about this? Oh wow, talk about cultural blindness, I thought the whole thing was obvious…

In Sweden, the drinking age is 18, but in order to buy alcohol in (the government monopoly) store, you have to be 20. This means that even though there’s a bunch of 18-year-olds among August and his friends, they’re not old enough to buy for a private party, and they’re also stuck at the school.

So the usual way for kids to get alcohol is to ask someone to buy for them. You ask an older sibling, or friend, or maybe even your parents. Someone always knows someone. August’s usual contact is not available, and Vincent is nervous because the school is more locked down than usual. August asks Simon, because Simon goes away from the school everyday. Simon asks Ayub how he got alcohol for midsummer (It’s not just a horror movie, it’s a real holiday featuring lots of booze) and he says that he asked Simon’s dad, which is how the entire storyline of Simon getting back in touch with his dad starts.

In Swedish, all the characters are consistently talking about “köpa ut”, which means to buy alcohol for someone who is underage as a favour, but the subtitles and dubs are really struggling with this, and settled on “dealing”. But this makes it sound like Micke is some kind of prohibition era gangster who drives around in his van, selling moonshine to kids, which is not the case here.

What happened is that August sent Simon a list of what he wanted, Simon gave the list to his dad, who went to the store, bought the stuff, gave it to Simon, who gave it to August, thus starting the whole subplot of August being broke and unable to pay for it. That’s it.

Anonymous asked:

What do you think of Felice's dad? I read through all your analyses of young royals and I've been thinking that a black man in Sweden would obviously be "nouveau riche" although he went to hilerska (he was singing along with the school song on parents day). How would her mom's family be okay with them getting married if they're so "old money". I wanna make it clear that I'm not making this into a race thing. He just wouldn't have the same centuries old roots in Sweden like the others.

Racism is always a can of worms to talk about, but let’s do it anyway! What could possibly go wrong?

From an American perspective, it might appear that the show is severely lacking in racial diversity, considering how the overwhelming majority of the characters are white. And, from the same perspective, it might appear that the lack of homophobia is idealistic and unreal and too good to be true, considering how absolutely no-one has a problem with either Simon or Wilhelm liking boys.

However, compared to real life Sweden, the opposite is true! The lack of homophobia is actually 100% believable, this generation of kids don’t really give a shit, and Crown Princess Victoria has walked in the Stockholm Pride parade several times to show her support. The show isn’t pushing any boundaries here at all.

But the racial diversity in the show is extremely idealistic and unreal, because the real life counterparts to Hillerska, and the Swedish nobility, is pretty much 100% white. We don’t know if Poppe married into Smysan’s family, or the other way around, but him being a black man makes either scenario completely unbelievable. It’s completely unthinkable for his and previous generations.

The characters of Nils and Alexander are more believable since they’re both nouveau riche and not part of the nobility, but it’s still pretty unrealistic that they would go to a school like this. So in terms of racial diversity, the show is really pushing the boundaries.

Obviously I like the fact that Poppe and Felice are both black, representation matters, I think the show is doing a great job, but everyone has to understand what the baseline is, what the reality that the show is based on looks like.

I mean, take a look at this photo from the school start at the real deal, Lundsberg, just a couple of weeks ago. This is 2021, but it looks like it could have been taken in 1921, because I can’t see a single non-white person. Can you?

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Sours: https://skamenglishsubs.tumblr.com/

Skam (TV series)

Norwegian teen drama streaming television series

Skam (Norwegian pronunciation: [skɑm]; English: "Shame") is a Norwegian teen dramastreaming television series about the daily life of teenagers at the Hartvig Nissen School, a gymnasium in the wealthy borough of Frogner in West EndOslo. It was produced by NRK P3, which is part of the Norwegian public broadcaster NRK.

Skam follows a new main character each season. While airing, a new clip, conversation or social media post was published in real-time on the NRK website on a daily basis. Each season has focus on particular topics, ranging from relationship difficulties, identity, eating disorders, sexual assault, homosexuality, mental health issues, religion, and forbidden love.

Despite no promotion ahead of its 2015 launch, Skam broke viewership records. Its premiere episode is among the most-watched episodes in NRK's history, and by the middle of season two, it was responsible for half of NRK's traffic. With season three, it broke all streaming records in Norway, along with viewership records in neighbouring countries Denmark and Sweden, and attracted an active international fanbase on social media, where fans promoted translations. The show repeatedly made international headlines for its popularity surge across the world, and the show's actors became famous worldwide. However, the international popularity was not expected, with the music industry requiring geoblocking of NRK's website due to music license contracts only supporting the Norwegian public. The series ended after its fourth season in 2017, reportedly due to high production stress.

Skam received critical acclaim and significant recognition for its portrayal of sexual abuse in the second season and homosexuality in the third. The series was also praised for its contributions to promote Norwegian language and culture internationally, as well as for its unique distribution format, adopting a new strategy of real-time, high-engagement, snippet-based distribution rather than rigidity and television schedules. It received multiple Norwegian awards throughout its run, being honored for its dramatic narrative, innovative storytelling format, writing, directing, and actors' performances. The success of the series has spawned an American version led by Skam showrunner Julie Andem, as well as multiple European remakes, four books containing original scripts, and blooper reels.

Hartvig Nissen School[edit]

Main article: Hartvig Nissen School

The series focuses on the daily life of teenagers at the Hartvig Nissen School (Hartvig Nissens skole), a gymnasium (preparatory high school) located in the Frogner borough in Oslo'sWest End, with the address Niels Juels gate (Niels Juel Street) 56.[1] The school is informally and widely known simply as "Nissen." Originally named Nissen's Girls' School, it was founded by Hartvig Nissen in 1849 as a private girls' school which was owned by its headmasters and which served the higher bourgeoisie. Its alumni include many famous individuals and two members of the Norwegian royal family. The school was the first higher school in Norway which admitted women.[2]

Concept[edit]

At the start of a week, a clip, conversation or social media post is posted on the Skam website. New material is posted on a daily basis, with the content unified and combined into one full episode on Fridays.[3] The main character differs from season to season,[4] and the fictional characters have social media profiles where viewers can follow their activities.[3] The show allows public interaction over the duration of the episode. The format has since been used in other NRK P3 series, Blank and Lovleg.[5][6]

Characters[edit]

The following are characters in Skam.[7]

1In season one, David Stakston was credited as playing a character called David, though his name was never spoken in the show. This could be the character Magnus or Stakston was playing a different student. Stakston also makes an uncredited appearance in the last episode of season two.

2In season three, Mikael appears uncredited in a video Isak finds on the Internet of Even.

Central cast[edit]

  • Lisa Teige as Eva Kviig Mohn (born 2 June 1999) is the main character in the first season. When we first meet Eva, she recently started dating Jonas, who just ended a relationship with Eva's best friend Ingrid. Her relationship with Jonas is complicated and she finds it hard to trust him, eventually leading her to cheat on him and ultimately leading to their breakup at the end of season one. Eva lives at home with a busy mom and starts at the Hartvig Nissen school ("Nissen") in 2015 together with her friends and former classmates Jonas, Ingrid, Sara and Isak. Losing her former best friends Ingrid and Sara due to her relationship to Jonas, she starts up new friendships with Noora, Chris, Vilde and Sana at Nissen. After season one, Eva is mostly portrayed as an outgoing and promiscuous party-girl.
  • Josefine Frida Pettersen as Noora Amalie Sætre (born 6 April 1999) is the main character in the second season. Noora is portrayed as a confident, smart and helpful character in seasons one and two. In the second season, it is however revealed that she has some insecurities after all. She lives with two roommates and does not have contact with her parents. Unlike her friends Eva, Chris and Vilde, Noora is not into drinking or hooking up with guys. When the school's playboy William continues to flirt with her despite several rejections, she eventually gets interested in him, but due to her prejudices against him, she finds it hard to accept. They end up in a relationship at the end of season two. In seasons three and four, Noora faces complications in her relationship with William.
  • Tarjei Sandvik Moe as Isak Valtersen (born 21 June 1999) is the main character in the third season. Isak is a close friend of both Eva and Jonas in season one. At the end of the season, Noora and Eva find homosexual pornography on Isak's phone, raising suspicions about his sexual orientation. Season three follows Isak's struggles to accept his sexuality. He meets Even, and the two quickly fall in love and begin to secretly see each other. However, Isak unknowingly pushes Even (who has bipolar disorder) away by revealing that he doesn't want to be around people with mental disorders, due to his traumatizing experiences with his mentally ill mother. After struggling with his feelings for Even, Isak decides to come out to his best friend Jonas, and eventually to other people that he is close to. He gets back together with Even with the aid of his friends, but after Even has a manic episode, he distances himself from him again out of fear and heartbreak. However, he comes to better understand Even's situation after a discussion with his friends, and reunites with Even after he realizes that he loves him, accepting the obstacles created by his disorder. In season four, Isak is portrayed as much happier, as he lives comfortably and publicly in a relationship with Even.
  • Iman Meskini as Sana Bakkoush (born 24 December 1999) is the main character in the fourth season. Sana's biggest struggle throughout the series is to live the traditional Muslim lifestyle and the traditional Norwegian gymnasium-lifestyle at the same time. Sana is portrayed as decisive and eloquent, but faces constant prejudices from her classmates, her parents and people she meets on the street, which sometimes leads Sana to take irrational decisions. This peaks when Sana anonymously cyberbullies her classmate Sara, who wants to exclude Sana from their russefeiring-squad. Unlike Eva, Noora and Isak, she has a close relationship with her family. In season 4, she falls in love with Yousef, who she initially thinks is a Muslim, but turns out not to be. After initial attempts to distance herself from him, they appear to grow closer later in the season.

Main cast[edit]

  • Marlon Valdés Langeland as Jonas Noah Vasquez (born 20 December 1999), Eva's boyfriend in the first season. He is also Isak's best friend and a classmate of all the main characters.
  • Ulrikke Falch as Vilde Hellerud Lien (born 13 July 1999), the naive fourth member of the main girl squad. She is the enthusiastic initiator of russefeiring, revy and other social events for the squad.
  • Ina Svenningdal as Christina "Chris" Berg (born 6 January 1999), the amusing fifth member of the girl squad. She usually avoids most conflicts and emotionally deep conversations.
  • Thomas Hayes as William Magnusson (born 10 January 1997), the flirt and eventually boyfriend of Noora in the second season. He is two years older than the main cast, but also studies at Nissen in the first two seasons.
  • Carl Martin Eggesbø as Eskild Tryggvasson (born 19 August 1995), the homosexual roommate of Noora in season two and four, and of Isak's in season three.
  • Henrik Holm as Even Bech Næsheim (born 12 February 1997), the love affair and eventual boyfriend of Isak. Even is diagnosed with bipolar disorder at some point prior to season 3.
  • David Stakston as Magnus Fossbakken (born 30 October 1999), Isak's awkward friend and classmate. In the fourth season he is in a relationship with Vilde.
  • Sacha Kleber Nyiligira as Mahdi Disi (born 19 January 1999), Isak's friend and classmate. Member of the boys squad.
  • Cengiz Al as Yousef Acar (born 21 September 1997), the atheist love interest of Sana and a former classmate of Even.

Recurring cast[edit]

  • Herman Tømmeraas as Christoffer "Penetrator-Chris" Schistad (born 2 April 1997), the on-and-off love interest of Eva through all four seasons. He is also classmate and best friend of William.
  • Cecilie Martinsen as Ingrid Theis Gaupseth (born 23 February 1999), Jonas's girlfriend and Eva's best friend prior to season one. Ingrid is a member of the russefeiring-squad "Pepsi Max", which often rivals the main characters' squad.
  • Kristina Ødegaard as Sara Nørstelien (born 12 July 1999), Ingrid's best friend and leader of the "Pepsi Max" squad. Sara dates Isak in the second season.
  • Rakel Øfsti Nesje as Linn Larsen Hansen (born 1 January 1996), the introverted roommate of Eskild and Noora/Isak.
  • Simo Mohamed Elhbabi as Elias Bakkoush (born 5 March 1997), Sana's older brother and Yousef's best friend and former classmate.

Episodes[edit]

Series overview[edit]

Season 1[edit]

The first clip from season 1 was made available on Tuesday, 22 September 2015,[8] with the combined clips during the week premiering as a full episode on Friday, 25 September 2015.[9] The season consists of 11 episodes; the main character is Eva Mohn.[9] The storyline deals with Eva's difficult relationship with her boyfriend Jonas and the themes of loneliness, identity, belonging and friendship.

Season 2[edit]

The first clip from season 2 was made available on Monday, 29 February 2016,[10] with the combined clips during the week premiering as a full episode on Friday, 4 March 2016.[9] The season consists of 12 episodes; the main character is Noora Amalie Sætre.[9] The season is about her relationship with William and deals with issues of friendship, feminism, eating disorders, self-image, violence, sexual violence and the contemporaneous refugee crisis in relation to Norwegian democracy.

Season 3[edit]

The first clip from season 3 was made available on Sunday, 2 October 2016,[11][12] with the combined clips during the week premiering as a full episode on Friday, 7 October 2016.[9] The season consists of 10 episodes; the main character is Isak Valtersen.[9] The season deals with Isak's burgeoning relationship with Even Bech Næsheim and is principally a coming out story that deals with issues of love, sexual identity, authenticity, mental illness, religion and friendship.

  • NRK TV and NRK P3 used different titles for 7 of the season 3 episodes.

Season 4[edit]

The first clip from season 4 was made available on Monday, 10 April 2017,[13] with the combined clips during the week premiering as a full episode on Friday, 14 April 2017.[9] The season consisted of 10 episodes,[14] and the main character is Sana Bakkoush.[9] The season deals with the Islamic religion, forbidden love, cyberbullying, friendship, and the Norwegian russ celebratory period.

The series finale episode switches character clip-to-clip, focusing on short stories by characters not given their own, full season. The episode deals with parental depression, love rejection, jealousy, friendship, mutual relationship support, and fear of abandonment.

Production[edit]

Julie Andem and Mari Magnus

Julie Andem created Skam. In an interview with Rushprint in April 2016, Andem discussed production of the series. Originally developed for 16-year-old girls, Andem made use of the "NABC" production model ("Needs/Approach/Benefit/Competition"), and instead of collecting information from a vast amount of sources, she had extensive, hours-long interviews with a single representative to uncover what needs that specific target audience had in order to cover that story. In contrast to American shows, which were the primary competition for shows attracting attention from teenagers, Andem stated that she had one advantage; knowing who the audience were and what culture they grew up in. One major area of exploration Andem found through research was pressure; she stated that "the pressure to perform is very high for this target audience. They strive to perform in so many ways. That's fine, and it doesn't necessarily have to be dangerous or unhealthy. But what is unhealthy is that many feel like they can't live up to the demands, and therefore feel that they failed. They are comparing themselves to each other, not themselves. And then a thought occurred: How to get them to let go of the pressure through a series like Skam".[15] Andem wanted the show to be a combination of social realism, soap opera, and sitcom, transitioning between the genres as the scenes switch, for example from the comical scenes of a doctor's office to the make-out scenes on the stairs. She admitted it didn't always work, saying that one particular scene change in episode 5 of season 1 from the stairs to the doctor's office was "a dramatic jump", and elaborated that "in a later scene, I told the photographer that we maybe should try to go a little closer. But we didn't get the humor, so: fuckit, we'll shoot sitcom-ish and blend the genres."[15]

Andem created nine characters, without any backstory. Everyone was supposed to be able to lead a season, and the show was going to switch character season-to-season. 1,200 people auditioned for the roles in the first round of casting. As production started, Andem wrote scripts for the shows, and there was no improvisation. "A lot of people think much of the show is improvised. It's not. A lot is written for the actors. And before and after a scene, I'll wait for a while before I say thank you and let them play a little in the scene. If a scene doesn't work, we'll fix it and see what in the script doesn't work."[15] Production had a short deadline, with scripts written in three days, one-and-a-half days to shoot, and four-to-five days to edit. "The plan must be there, and we just have to finish through".[15] The series' use of real-time was planned from early on, and Andem wrote the series in episodic format, although the content also had to work for daily releases, including a cliffhanger ending in each scene. Andem read the comments for each day, and looked for feedback from the audience on how to end each season while still keeping her original plans in some way.[15]

As the series premiered, there was little or no promotion for the show, due to the production's and NRK's wish for teenagers to find it on their own, spread the news through social media, and avoid the older generation even noticing the series.[15] There were no launch interviews, no reviews,[15] and the actors were shielded from the media, with NRK P3 editorial chief Håkon Moslet saying that "We want most of the focus to be on the show. These actors are very young, I think it's good they're being shielded a little. They do also notice the popularity of the series".[16]

The Norwegian newspaper Dagbladet reported in December 2016 that the production of seasons 2 and 3 of Skam had cost a combined sum of NOK10 million. NRK P3 editorial chief Håkon Moslet stated: "For being a drama of high quality, Skam is a very cost-efficient production."[17]

In December 2016, the series was renewed for a fourth season.[18][19] In early April 2017, it was announced that the first clip from the fourth season would premiere on 10 April, and that it would be the last season of the series.[20][21] NRK P3 editorial chief Håkon Moslet stated that the making of Skam had been "an extreme sport", and in an Instagram post, creator, writer and director Julie Andem wrote that "Skam has been a 24/7 job. It has also been amazingly fun to work on, and I really believe that has given the series a unique energy, and ensured that Skam continues to surprise and entertain. We recently decided that we won't be making a new season this fall. I know many of you out there will be upset and disappointed to hear this, but I'm confident this is the right decision."[23]

On 23 June 2017, one day before the series finale, the entire cast officially met the press before the series' wrap party, answering questions from fans around the world and describing their experiences and memories from production. It was notably the first time all the actors were allowed to break their silence and speak to the public.[24][25]

On 9 December 2018, NRK published the first of four official blooper reels from the series. The 9 December release featured never-before-seen content from the first season, with the remaining three blooper videos released throughout the following week.[26]

Distribution[edit]

In Norway, the series is available on the radio channel NRK P3's website,[9] and on the web television solution NRK TV.[27] The weekly episodes are also aired on Fridays on TV channel NRK3.[27] The series has been licensed to air as a Nordvision co-production by public service broadcasters in other Nordic countries, specifically:[28][29]

  • In Denmark, the series is shown by DR on the DR TV streaming service and aired on TV channel DR3 since December 2016.[28][30]
  • In Finland, the series is shown by Yle on the Yle Areena streaming service since December 2016.[31]
  • In Iceland, the series is shown by RÚV on both its streaming service and television channel.[28]
  • In Sweden, the series is shown by SVT on the SVT Play streaming service since December 2016.[32]

Reception[edit]

Norway and Nordic countries[edit]

In Norway, on average, about 192,000 viewers watched the first season, with the first episode being one of the most viewed of all time on NRK TV online.[33] In the first week of June 2016, streaming of Skam was responsible for over half of the traffic on NRK TV.[34] Following the release of the third-season finale, NRK stated that the second season had an average audience of 531,000, while the third season broke all streaming records on its NRK TV service with an average audience of 789,000 people.[35][36] The trailer for the fourth season, released on 7 April 2017, was watched by 900,000 people within four days.[37] During the start of the fourth season, 1.2 million unique users had visited Skam's website, and the first episode had been watched by 317,000 people. NRK P3 editorial chief Håkon Moslet told Verdens Gang that "We see that there is high traffic and high interest for season 4. Since the end of the season we have seen a pattern around viewer interest. We lie high in the first week and towards the end of the season when the drama kicks in."[38] In May 2017, NRK published a report on 2016 viewing statistics, writing that the third season broke both the streaming record for a series on NRK TV and for streaming of any series in Norway.[39]

An October 2016 Aftenposten report detailed that Skam had become popular in Sweden, with "well over 5000" viewers with Swedish IP addresses watching the episodes, not counting the individual clips.[40] A later report from Verdens Gang in January 2017 stated that Skam had "broken all records" in Sweden, with over 25 million plays on SVT Play.[41] Following the series' licensing deal for broadcasting in Denmark,[42] the series broke records in January 2017, with the show's first episode scoring 560,000 viewers on DR TV.[43] In Finland, the first episode had more than 130,000 views by the end of February 2017, two and half months after its release, described by Yle audience researcher Anne Hyvärilä as "quite exceptional".[44]

Skam has received critical acclaim. The newspaper NATT&DAG selected it as the best TV series of 2015.[45] In its second season, Kripos, Norway's National Criminal Investigation Service, praised the series' handling of sexual abuse, including the girls' encouraging the victim, Noora, to go to the emergency room to explain the situation and gather evidence of the abuse, and Noora confronting her abuser with relevant laws he has broken to prevent the sharing of photographs showing her naked.[46][47] The National Center for Prevention of Sexual Assault also praised the portrayal, adding that they wish for the series to become a syllabus in schools.[48] In the third season, Martine Lunder Brenne of Verdens Gang praised the theme of homosexuality and wrote that "I praise it first and foremost because young homosexual people, both in and outside the closet, finally get some long-awaited and modern role models. It doesn't matter if it's a character in a fictional drama - right now, Skam is Norway's coolest show".[49] In the fourth season, Christopher Pahle of Dagbladet praised a conversation about religion, writing: "two young people, with Muslim backgrounds, have a reflected, respectful and enlightening conversation about religion without arguing or taking it to the trenches. Think about that. They pick flowers and dribble a ball, and even if they don't necessarily convince each other, that's not the purpose either. The point is that they understand each other".[50]

Skam has been recognised for its contributions to promote Norwegian language and culture, and to foster affinity between Nordic countries. In December 2016, the Nordic Association awarded Skam the annual Nordic Language Prize for its ability to engage a young Nordic audience, connecting with young people across the Nordic region and fostering positive attitudes about the region's neighbouring languages.[51] In April 2017, Skam and its creator Julie Andem were awarded the Peer Gynt Prize, an award given to a person or institution that has had a positive impact on society and made Norway famous abroad.[52][53]

In June 2017, just prior to the show's ending, Aftenposten published a report featuring interviews with many well-known Norwegian television creators, writers and directors, all praising Skam showrunner Julie Andem for her creative work on the show. Praise was directed at the series' "unpolished" nature, her ability to maintain "such a high level of quality over a long period of time", the series' blend of different sexualities and ethnicities and use of dialogue to resolve issues, and the show's compassion, thereby its ability to truly capture its generational audience.[54]

The show's series finale received positive reviews. Vilde Sagstad Imeland of Verdens Gang praised the final clip for being a "worthy and emotional ending".[55] Cecilie Asker of Aftenposten wrote that "The very last episode of Skam leaves us with a big sorrow, a sore loss, and a craving for more. It couldn't have been better."[56]

On 1 July 2017, during the celebration of Oslo Pride, Skam, its creator Julie Andem, and actors Tarjei Sandvik Moe, Henrik Holm and Carl Martin Eggesbø were awarded the "Fryd" award, an award given to persons or organizations that break the norms in gender and sexuality in a positive manner.[57][58]

In February 2018, Prince William and his wife Catherine, members of the British royal family, visited the Hartvig Nissen school to meet with the cast and learn more about Skam, its impact on the actors' lives and to discuss youth and mental health.[59]

International success[edit]

Starting with season three, the show attracted an international audience, and NRK was therefore heavily asked to add English subtitles to the Skam episodes online. The requests were declined due to the license for the music presented throughout the series being restricted to a Norwegian audience, and that easy availability outside Norway would violate the terms of NRK's license agreements. An attorney for NRK elaborated that YouTube videos featuring more than 50% original Skam content would be automatically removed.[60] When denied official subtitling, fans started making their own translations of the episodes into several world languages, greatly expanding the online fanbase.[61] Norwegian viewers were quick to share translated clips quickly after availability through Google Drive, and also started blogs to cover additional material and language courses to explain Norwegian slang.[61][62]

By the end of 2016, Skam had been trending globally several times on Twitter and Tumblr, and its Facebook, Instagram and Vine presence grew rapidly.[62] On social media, fandoms developed creative paintings, screensavers, phone covers, and fan videos.[62][63][64] Filming locations, including Sagene Church,[65] and the Hartvig Nissen school, were visited by fans, and the actors were receiving worldwide attention.[61] After being featured in an episode in the third season, Gabrielle's song "5 fine frøkner" saw a 3,018 percent increase in listening on Spotify, with over 13 million streams and, at one point, rising to eighth place on the Swedish top music rankings.[66] Its social media popularity continued into its fourth season in April 2017, with over 20,000 tweets containing #skamseason4 registered in 24 hours at the time of season four's first clip, a substantial portion of which originated from the United States.[67]

In January 2017, Skam was geoblocked for foreign viewers. NRK attorney Kari Anne Lang-Ree stated that "NRK has a right to publish content to the Norwegian audience and foreign countries. The music industry is reacting to the fact that many international viewers are listening to music despite NRK not having international licensing deals. NRK takes the concerns from the music industry seriously. We are in dialogue with [the music industry] to find a solution".[68] NRK stated that "We want to thank our international fans and followers who have embraced SKAM. We are blown away by your dedication – it is something we never expected. That is why it hurts to tell you guys that due to a necessary clarification with the music right holders, SKAM will until further notice not be available outside Norway. We are working hard to figure out how to solve this issue so that the fans can continue to enjoy SKAM from where they are".[68] When the fourth season premiered in April, the geoblock was removed for Nordic countries.[20]

The series has received significant attention from international media publications for its unique distribution model of real-time snippet-based information.[64][69][70][71]

Anna Leszkiewicz of New Statesman posted in March 2017 that she considered Skam "the best show on TV", highlighting the second season's handling of sexual assault. She praised the series for avoiding "shocking, gratuitous rape scenes", instead focusing on a single hand gesture by abuser Nico as a sign of predatory behavior. However, Leszkiewicz criticized the show for taking the "escape route", in which Noora finds the courage to speak to another girl who was at the party, who insists that, while Noora and Nico were in bed together, no sexual intercourse took place. Leszkiewicz commented that "So many women go through what Noora went through in Skam. Most of them don't get offered the same escape route. Instead, they have to live with the shame and confusion of an "ambiguous" assault."[72] The same month, Elite Daily's Dylan Kickham wrote that the international fanbase for Skam on social media was "much larger than I ever would have predicted", with major fangroups on Twitter, Facebook, and Tumblr. He credited the third season's storyline of homosexuality, calling it "incredibly intimate and profound", particularly praising a scene featuring a conversation about flamboyant attitudes between main character Isak and supporting character Eskild. While acknowledging highlights of the past two seasons, Kickham explained that "season three stands above the rest by shining a light on aspects of sexuality that are very rarely depicted in mainstream media", praising Eskild's "magnificent and timely take on the toxic "masc-for-masc" discrimination within the gay community" in response to Isak's homophobic comments. "It's these small, incisive moments that show just how much Skam understands and cares about the issues it portrays", explained Kickham.[73]

In March 2017, voters of E! Online's poll regarding "Top Couple 2017" declared characters Isak and Even, main stars of the show's third season, the winners.[74]Verdens Gang wrote in April that Skam had become popular in China, where publicly discussing homosexuality is illegal. It reported that almost four million Chinese people had watched the third season through piracy and a total of six million had watched all episodes so far translated to Chinese. The report also stated that NRK has no plans to stop piracy in China, and NRK P3 editorial chief Håkon Moslet told Verdens Gang that "It was Isak and Even that captured a young Chinese audience. There's a lot of censorship in China, and they are role models and have a relationship that Chinese people have a need to see."[75]

Anna Leszkiewicz wrote three more articles on Skam and its impact between April and December 2017. In the first report, she credited the series for having tackled multiple difficult topics with the use of universal emotions like loneliness rather than issue-based strategies.[61] In the second, she specifically focused on the series' ending, noting that it originally had nine characters designed to each lead a season, and quoted fans with the sentiment that "It seems like such an abrupt decision. It doesn't serve the storyline at all." Acknowledging the pressure of the show's global popularity as potentially a key element to end Skam, Leszkiewicz highlighted some fans' disapproval of the storylines presented towards the ending; season four's main character Sana, a member of the Muslim religion who had been under-represented in the series, had a shorter amount of focus in her season than other main characters had at their respective times; the final moments of the series focused on short stories by characters not given their own season, one of which told the story of a minor character without significant relevancy to the series; and a lackluster conversation about Islamophobia between Sana and her white, non-Muslim friend Isak. Leszkiewicz quoted disgruntled fans, one of which said that "Sana has been disrespected and disregarded and erased and sidelined and that is fucking gross. She deserved better".[76] Finally, in her last report, she focused on Skam's legacy as an American adaption was in production. NRK P3 editorial chief Håkon Moslet told her that "There was a lot of piracy", acknowledging that the show's global popularity was the result of fans illegally distributing content through Google Drive, though adding "But we didn't mind". Producer and project manager Marianne Furevold explained that "We were given a lot of time to do so much research, and I think that's a huge part of the success that we see today with Skam", referencing extensive in-depth interviews, attending schools and youth clubs, and immersing into teenagers' online lives, something that she did not think would have been possible with a commercial network. In regards to ending the series after its fourth season, while its popularity peaked, Moslet told Leszkiewicz that writer Julie Andem spent an enormous amount of time developing the series; "It was kind of an extreme sport to make, this series, especially for her. It was her life, 24/7, for two and a half years. It was enough, I think. And she wanted to end on a high. So that's the reason. I think it was the right thing". Andem had posted on Instagram that she "wouldn't have been able to make a season five as good as it deserved to be", though she had also written that she didn't want to give away the producing job of the American version, opting to take on the responsibility of that adaptation. That decision itself disgruntled fans, who "found her decision to leave the Norwegian series just to take on another huge commitment with the American show disappointing". Moslet praised the series' diverse set of characters, concluding with the statement that "At a time of confusion and intolerance, it seems more important than ever" for content creators to embrace diversity and reject intolerant attitudes.[77]

In December 2017, Tumblr released its list of the most talked-about shows of the year on its platform, with Skam topping the chart as number one, outranking hugely successful American series, such as Game of Thrones, Stranger Things, and The Walking Dead.[78]

Awards and nominations[edit]

Year Organization Category Nominee(s) Result Ref.
2016 GullrutenBest TV Drama N/A Won

[79]

Best New Program Series Won
Innovation of the Year Won
Best Film Editing for a TV Drama Ida Vennerød Kolstø Won
Newcomer of the Year Julie Andem
Mari Magnus
Won
Audience Award Noora (Josefine Pettersen) Nominated
C21Media International Drama Awards Best Digital Original N/A Won

[80][81]

Foreningen NordenNordic Language Prize Won

[51][82]

2017 GullrutenBest TV Drama Nominated

[83][84]

Best Actor Tarjei Sandvik Moe Nominated
Best Writing for a Drama Julie Andem Won
Best Directing for a Drama Won
TV Moment of the Year "O helga natt" Won
Audience Award Henrik Holm
Tarjei Sandvik Moe
Won
Peer Gynt AS Peer Gynt Prize N/A Won

[52]

Nordiske Seriedagers Awards Best Nordic TV-drama Skam season 4 Won

Other media[edit]

Adaptations[edit]

In December 2016, Simon Fuller's XIX Entertainment production company signed a deal with NRK to produce an American version of the series, then-titled Shame.[85][86] Development of the series continued in the following months, with a title change to SKAM Austin, casting calls taking place,[87] and the announcement that Austin would air on Facebook's "Facebook Watch" original video platform[88][89] and on the original's series network, NRK. It premiered in April 2018[90] and has been renewed for a second season.[91]

In April 2017, the Danish theatre Aveny-T was reported to have acquired exclusive rights to produce a stage version of Skam. Four different performances will be made, one for each season, with the first show having taken place in Copenhagen on 15 September 2017,[92][93] and the remaining three performances produced once a year through the year 2020.[94]

In September 2017, French entertainment website AlloCiné reported on the imminent production of a French remake of the series.[95]

In October 2017, Variety and The Hollywood Reporter reported that local adaptations of Skam would be produced in five European countries; Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the Netherlands. NRK CEO Thor Gjermund Eriksen said in a statement that "We are very excited about the tremendous interest that Skam/Shame has generated outside of Norway. The creators of Skam aimed to help 16-year-old-girls strengthen their self-esteem through dismantling taboos, making them aware of interpersonal mechanisms and showing them the benefits of confronting their fears. This is a vision we are proud to bring to other countries".[96]Variety notes that each local production will be required to do its own local research into the dilemmas and dreams of its teenagers, rather than copying the original Norwegian production.[97] In October 2018, Belgium began airing its own adaptation.[98] On 3 April 2019, the educational Swedish broadcasting channel, UR began broadcasting the first seasons of Druck (as Skam Deutschland), Skam España, and Skam France.[99]

Having achieved success, multiple remakes have been renewed for additional seasons, progressing in development at different speeds.[100]

Counterparts[edit]

Country Local title Network Premiere Setting Seasonal main character
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
 NorwaySKAMNRK25 September 2015Hartvig Nissen School, OsloEva Mohn Noora Sætre Isak Valtersen Sana Bakkoush N/A
 FranceSKAM FranceFrance.tv Slash
France 4
5 February 2018 Lycée Dorian, ParisEmma Borgès Manon Demissy Lucas Lallemant Imane Bakhellal Arthur Broussard[a]Lola Lecomte[b]Tiffany Prigent[c]Bilal Cherif[d]
 Belgium (Wallonia) RTBF Auvio
La Trois
 GermanyDRUCKfunk
ZDFneo
24 March 2018 Barnim-Gymnasium [de], BerlinHanna Jung Mia Winter Matteo Florenzi Amira Mahmood Nora Machwitz[e]Fatou Jallow Ismail Inci N/A
 ItalySKAM Italia [it]TIMvisionNetflix29 March 2018 Liceo J. F. Kennedy, RomeEva Brighi Martino Rametta[f]Eleonora Sava[f]Sana Allagui TBA N/A
 United StatesSKAM AustinFacebook Watch27 April 2018 Bouldin High School, Austin, TexasMegan Flores Grace Olsen N/A
 SpainSKAM EspañaMovistar+16 September 2018 Instituto Isabel la Católica [es], MadridEva Vázquez Cris Soto[g]Nora Grace / Viri Gómez García Amira Naybet N/A
 NetherlandsSKAM NL [nl]NTR16 September 2018 St-Gregorius College [nl], UtrechtIsa Keijser Liv Reijners N/A
 Belgium (Flanders) wtFOCKVIER

VIJFwtFOCK.be

10 October 2018 Koninklijk Atheneum Berchem [nl], AntwerpJana Ackermans Zoë Loockx Robbe IJzermans Kato Fransen[h]Yasmina Ait Omar N/A
  1. ^Skam France was the first in the franchise to continue past the original 4 season story, and create a brand new story with the character of Arthur (Mahdi's counterpart).
  2. ^Skam France's sixth season was the first to introduce a main character who did not have a counterpart in the original series with Lola Lecomte.
  3. ^Tiffany Prigent is an original character who does not have a counterpart in the original Skam.
  4. ^Bilal Cherif is an original character who does not have a counterpart in the original Skam.
  5. ^From Season 5 onwards, Druck introduced a new generation of original characters, beginning with Kiki's (Vilde's counterpart) younger sister Nora.
  6. ^ abSkam Italia switched the order of the season main characters compared to other productions, such that Martino (Isak's counterpart) is the main character of season 2 and Eleonora (Noora's counterpart) is the main character of season 3.
  7. ^Skam España switched the order of the season main characters, so that Cristina "Cris" (Isak's counterpart) is the main character of season 2.
  8. ^Kato Fransen is an original character who does not have a counterpart in the original Skam.

Books[edit]

In September 2018, Julie Andem announced on her Instagram account that, in coordination with Norwegian book publishing company Armada Forlag, four Skam books, one for each season of the series, would be released to the public, including original, unedited manuscripts, featuring scenes that were never filmed, lines that were later cut, as well as Andem's personal comments and thoughts. The first book, focusing on season one, was made available for purchase on the day of the announcement, on Monday, 3 September 2018. In the press release from Armada Forlag, Andem said that "Releasing these unedited scripts, including typos and nerd comments, is right at the edge of my comfort zone", while adding that "I hope people think it's fun to read the scripts, and that maybe someone gets inspired to write themselves". Jonas Forsang, chairman of Armada Forlag, said that "This is not just TV-history, this is major literature". Norwegian press company Aftenposten noted at the time that the timeline for the release of the three remaining books was unclear.[101]

A few days later, Andem signed a book contract with Swedish publishing company Salomonsson Agency, which included rights for the agency to distribute the Skam books outside of Norway. CEO Julia Angelin told Verdens Gang that "We are incredibly proud to be working with the genius Julie Andem. She has changed the entire Scandinavian culture", and added that "It will be incredibly fun to build her career as an author with this unique project. We have only seen the beginning". The report from Verdens Gang also stated that the first book had been sold "at record tempo" since its release just three days earlier, and that all four Skam books will be released before the 2018 Christmas holiday period. Andem told the publication that "The Skam fans are, as I've expressed before, "the coolest fanbase on earth". And they are always very enthusiastic and thankful. That is nice and moving".[102] A later update to the same article clarified that the book had "already" been distributed to Finland and Sweden, without details of further distribution.[102] Website Books From Norway, which provides English-language information on Norwegian literature, states that rights for international book release have also been sold to Denmark through the Høst & Søn agency, Italy through the Giunti agency, Poland through the Rebis agency, and Russia through the Popcorn Books agency, though the website doesn't specify release dates.[103]

References[edit]

  1. ^Gjellan, Marit (15 June 2016). "Dobbelt så mange vil gå på "Skam"-skolen". NRK (in Norwegian). Retrieved 24 June 2017.
  2. ^Maja Lise Rønneberg Rygg: Hartvig Nissens skole 150 år: 1849–1999, Oslo 1999
  3. ^ ab"Om serien". NRK P3 (in Norwegian). NRK. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  4. ^Braseth, Sofie (16 December 2016). "Hvem synes du bør bli hovedperson i neste "Skam"-sesong? Stem her!". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). Aller Media. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  5. ^"P3 publiserte ny serie i det skjulte: "Blank" minner om "Skam" – NRK Kultur og underholdning". NRK (in Norwegian). NRK. 15 April 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  6. ^"Her skal nye "Skam" spelast inn og den skal heite "Lovleg" – NRK Sogn og Fjordane – Lokale nyheter, TV og radio". NRK (in Norwegian). NRK. 27 March 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  7. ^"Profiler". NRK P3 (in Norwegian). NRK. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  8. ^"Vår skyld". NRK P3 (in Norwegian). NRK. 22 September 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  9. ^ abcdefghi"Episoder - Skam". NRK P3 (in Norwegian). NRK. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  10. ^"De sexistiske jævlene". NRK P3 (in Norwegian). NRK. 29 February 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  11. ^Korsvold, Kaja (2 October 2016). "Nå er Skam på lufta". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Schibsted. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  12. ^"Lykke til Isak". NRK P3 (in Norwegian). NRK. 2 October 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  13. ^"Er jeg sen?". NRK P3 (in Norwegian). NRK. 10 April 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  14. ^"Sesong 4". NRK (in Norwegian). Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  15. ^ abcdefgFaldalen, Jon Inge (4 April 2016). "Nerven i "Skam" skal være sterk og relevant". Rushprint. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
  16. ^Nyland, Bjørn Kristian (16 February 2016). ""Skam"-stjernene skjermes av NRK". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). Aller Media. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
  17. ^Braseth, Sofie (17 December 2016). "NRK lagde to sesonger "Skam" for 10 millioner". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). Aller Media. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  18. ^Ingebrethsen, Christian; Woldsdal, Nicolay (9 December 2016). "Fjerde sesong av "Skam" kommer til våren". NRK (in Norwegian). Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  19. ^Mortensen, Torgeir (9 December 2016). "Det blir en fjerde sesong av "Skam"". Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). Schibsted. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
  20. ^ abJohansen, Øystein David (7 April 2017). "Klart for den fjerde og siste "Skam"-sesongen: Sana har hovedrollen". Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). Schibsted. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  21. ^Klette, Erlend Tro (7 April 2017). "Sana blir hovedperson i den siste sesongen av "Skam"". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Schibsted. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  22. ^Andem, Julie (7 April 2017). "Instagram post by Julie Andem". Instagram. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  23. ^Ording, Oda (23 June 2017). "Internasjonal interesse for Skam". NRK (in Norwegian). Retrieved 24 June 2017.
  24. ^Gulrandsen, Elise Alexandra; Østbø, Stein (24 June 2017). ""Skam"-stjernene forteller: Dette er våre beste minner". Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). Schibsted. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
  25. ^Monsen, Janne (9 December 2018). "Bloopers fra Skam er endelig ute!". 730 (in Norwegian). Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  26. ^ ab"Skam". NRK TV (in Norwegian). NRK. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  27. ^ abcEspeseth-Andresen, Øystein (April 2017). "The Year SKAM Became a Nordic Success"(PDF). Nordvision Annual Report 2016-2017, English Edition. Nordvision: 30–31.
  28. ^Sommer, Petter (10 October 2016). ""Skam" solgt til flere land". NRK (in Norwegian). Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  29. ^Kjærgaard, Bo (10 November 2016). "Sådan sender DR3 den norske serie Skam". DR TV (in Danish). DR. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  30. ^Massa, Silja (15 December 2016). "Norjan yleisradio onnistui lähes mahdottomassa: draamasarja Skam tavoitti teinit". Yle (in Finnish). Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  31. ^Parkström, Sara (28 November 2016). "En ungdomsserie om vänskap, kärlek, sex, fest och svek". SVT (in Swedish). Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  32. ^Aldridge, Øystein (15 January 2016). "NRK treffer blink fra skolegården". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Schibsted. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  33. ^Gundersen, Øystein Riiser (4 June 2016). "Hvordan måler man en braksuksess?". NRKbeta (in Norwegian). NRK. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  34. ^Madshus, Karin (21 December 2016). ""Skam" sesong 3: Har slått alle rekorder for NRK". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). Aller Media. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
  35. ^Woldsdal, Nicolay; Michelsen, Ingunn (21 December 2016). "Skam slår alle rekorder". NRK (in Norwegian). Retrieved 5 April 2017.
  36. ^Aune, Oddvin (11 April 2017). "900.000 har sett første "Skam"-klipp". NRK (in Norwegian). Retrieved 11 April 2017.
  37. ^Pettersen, Jørn (24 April 2017). ""Skam"-feberen herjer igjen". Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). Schibsted. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
  38. ^"TV i verdensklasse". NRK (in Norwegian). 9 May 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
  39. ^Fjelltveit, Ingvild (5 October 2016). "Nå har svenskene også oppdaget Skam". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Schibsted. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  40. ^Pettersen, Jørn (19 January 2017). ""Skam" slår alle rekorder i Sverige". Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). Schibsted. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  41. ^Lindblad, Knut-Eirik (10 October 2016). "40 000 dansker så "Skam" i helgen - nå er serien solgt til Danmark". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). Aller Media. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  42. ^Ingebrethsen, Christian (29 January 2017). ""Skam" satt ny rekord". NRK (in Norwegian). Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  43. ^Massa, Silja (27 February 2017). "Skamin katsojaluvut ovat poikkeukselliset – norjalaissarja singahti Yle Areenan katsotuimpiin sisältöihin". Yle. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
  44. ^"Vinnerne av NATT&DAGs rikspriser 2015! Årets musikk! Årets film! Årets STEMME!". NATT&DAG. 10 February 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  45. ^Leth-Olsen, Lina (23 May 2016). "Kripos hyller Skam-jentene". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Schibsted. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
  46. ^Svendsen, Maiken (23 May 2016). "Kripos hyller "Skam"-Noora". Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). Schibsted. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
  47. ^Jørgensen, Karina Kaupang (23 May 2016). "Mener "Skam" burde være pensum". NRK (in Norwegian). Retrieved 11 April 2017.
  48. ^Lunder Brenne, Martine (2 November 2016). "En liten "Skam"-revolusjon". Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). Schibsted. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  49. ^Pahle, Christopher (6 May 2017). "Tenk det, sesongens beste "Skam"-scene hittil er altså to tenåringer som har en reflektert samtale om religion". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). Aller Media. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  50. ^ ab"'Skam' hailed for making Norwegian language cool". The Local. 5 December 2016. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
  51. ^ ab"Peer Gynt-prisen til "Skam"". TV 2 (in Norwegian). 21 April 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
  52. ^"Peer Gynt-prisen til "Skam"". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). Aller Media. 21 April 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
  53. ^Klette, Erlend Tro (16 June 2017). "Norske serieskapere hyller "Skam": – Gi Julie Andem penger, og send henne til utlandet!". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Schibsted. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  54. ^
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skam_(TV_series)
  1. Mdi icons
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  3. Whens daytona 500

SKAM Season 2: Noora

The SKAM books are the original scripts of the worldwide hit web drama series of the same name, just as they were written.

Each SKAM book contains one of the four seasons that aired between 2015 and 2017. The scripts have never recorded scenes, lines that were later cut, newly written prologues and epilogues, and Julie Andem’s own comments and unique mind maps.

SKAM Season 2: Noora follows Noora Amalie Sætre, the iconic young woman first introduced to viewers and readers in SKAM Season 1: Eva. As in Eva’s season, friendship and love are key issues in Noora’s story and her volatile relationship with William, a third-year student, is a recurring motif. But Noora’s season also deals with bigger issues like feminism, eating disorders, self-image, sexual violence and the contemporaneous refugee crisis in relation to Norwegian democracy.

The SKAM books are the ultimate key to the universe that absorbed an entire generation of viewers. Get ready to get to know Eva, Noora, Isak and Sana like never before.

Julie Andem

Ja tall1

Daniel Nilsen McStay

Julie Andem (b. 1982) is the world-renowned Norwegian screenwriter and director of SKAM, the teen drama web series that became an unprecedented national and international success upon airing in 2015. The series, which follows a new main protagonist in each of the four seasons, utilized a unique approach where social media posts, texts and clips were released in real time while it aired. The innovative concept won Andem the prestigious Norwegian Golden Screen award for “Best Innovation” as well as “Best Writing for a Drama” and “Best Directing for a Drama.” Andem has also directed the American remake, SKAM Austin, a Facebook Watch web series.

Sours: https://booksfromnorway.com/books/1340-skam-season-2-noora
SKAM ITALIA S03E01 FULL (ENG SUB)

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2 skam season

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SKAM Bloopers Season 2 - Temporada 2

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