Vive detrás de la puerta de la casa encima de un plato de barro donde además se le ponen las ofrendas. Para pedirle no se debe arrodillar ya que esclaviza a la persona, se le habla con carácter para que escuche sus ruegos y oraciones.
Eshu se puede atender los días Lunes, por ser el Primer Día Laborable y necesitamos de su ashé (bendición) de la siguiente manera: con la mano izquierda se le toca tres (3) veces el piso frente a él y se le da cuenta: "Eshu aquí está Su Nombre y Apellidosrindiéndole moforibale para que me ayude y siempre mantenga los buenos caminos abiertos y los caminos malos cerrados, de mucha salud, evolución, felicidad, estabilidad, unión familiar y sabiduría, tanto para mí como, para mi familia consanguínea y religiosa".
Se le prende una vela blanca (se coloca en el piso a un lado del santo), se le sopla aguardiente y se le puede prender un tabaco (se fuma hasta la mitad y se le deja a Eshu), se le hacen ofrendas de: guayabas, sardinas fritas con corojo, coco, ñame, maíz, aguardiente, jutía y pescado ahumado, tortas, café, al 3er día o más echar a la basura.
No se le echa miel directamente, ya que un "Guerrero Dulce"no existe. Se le puede untar corojo pero no en exceso, ya que trabaja mucho y luego se cansa, además de que en ocasiones aborrece la manteca de corojo.
Los Animales que come son:Jutía, Chivo, Gallo, Pollo y Jío jío.
Eshu es el santo que abre y cierra lo caminos, por lo que se le debe dar de comer regularmente para mantener los buenos caminos abiertos y los malos cerrados; y para que no genere tropiezos y atrasos. En el caso de que vaya a comer un santo, Eshu es el primero que come y luego el santo requerido.
Rezo:Eshu Akiloye aworo tentenu aparawa akamesese areletu omo, bata okolofifi okoloñiñi toni kanifo.
Como Atender a Los Guerreros y Orula:
YORUBA RELIGION: ESHU - is of exclusive power of the Babalawos, they load it and give it, Eshu is not crowned. ... When a home is protected denotes the presence of Elegua and when
ESHU - RELIGION YORUBA
La Santera o Regla de Osha-If.
Religin Yoruba_Teologa Yoruba_Historia de los Yorubas_Preceptos Yorubas_Los Orishas_Orculos Yorubas_Historias o Patakes_Prohibiciones_Preguntas frecuentesPanten Yoruba_Oloddumare_Olorun_Olofin_Orula_OriOrishas Guerreros_Eshu_Eleggua_Oggun_Oshosi_OzunOshas de Cabecera_Obbatala_Oshun_Yemaya_ShangoOtros Oshas_Oya_Aggayu Sola_Babalu AyeOrishas Mayores_Oduduwa_Orisha oko_Inle_Olokun_Yewa_Obba_Ossain_Nana Buruku_IrokoOrishas Menores_Oggue_Oke_Ibeyis_Abita_Bromu y Bronsia_Ogbon y Ogboni_Aja_Aje Shalunga_Aroni_Ayao_Obaee_Korikoto_Oranmiyan_Orungan_Oroia_OshumareOtros_Iku_Eggun_Orun_Iyami Oshooronga
Who is Eshu?
Eshu is an Orisha, of the group of the Orisha Odd (warriors). He governs the manifestations of the malevolent. For the good to manifest, it's neccesary to know the evil and the ways to evade it. He is the one who is always making traps and deceives the Orishas and men in the different legend or patakines. He means the misfortunes that happen in our lives when we are not in syntony or balance with which surrounds us. Eshu is of exclusive power of the Babalawos, they load it and give it, Eshu is not crowned. According to ifa it has 201 ways or paths. The Babalawos consecrates it with diverse elements of the nature. It does not speak by the Dilogn and it does not go to it. It works directly with Orunla; he is the one that takes ebb and gives account of the offerings. Most of the Oshas and Orishas are accompanied by a specific Eshu. In addition, all the Odun of If has their particular Eshu. Eshu as adoration object is made by the Aw of Orunmila.
The Eshu-Eleggua combination represents the constant bond between the positive and the negative, so that all change demands a crisis and there is no calm without calmness. When a home is protected denotes the presence of Elegua and when there there are problems it is that Eshu has entered. The western culture confused Eshu with the Devil, but that's not correct, in any case it could be confused with the Devil that tempted Jesus; Eshu, the trickster, but in nothing else it is resembled, since its objective is to provoke chaos so that measures to obtain the balance are taken .
Family of Eshu:
Eshu is the first particle of life created by Olorun. It is indicated that their 201 ways are children of Orunmila.
Paths of Eshu:
Eshu Abalonke.Eshu Abainukue [Abanulue].Eshu Abarikoko [Aberekoko].Eshu Aberu.Eshu Aboni.
Eshu Adawa.Eshu Afradi.Eshu Aganika.Eshu Agbad.
Eshu Agbalonk.Eshu Agbanile.Eshu Agbobamaleki [Agbobara Meleki].Eshu Agongo Olo Onya.Eshu Agongo Ogo.
Eshu Agogo [Agoto].Eshu Agomeyo.Eshu Agoror [Agoggoro].Eshu Agroiele [Agroi].Eshu Aiyede.
Eshu Akanadrede.Eshu Akere [Aguere].Eshu Akerebioke [Arerebieke].Eshu Akokolebiye [Akokoleriyu] [Akokoriye].Eshu Alagbna [Alagbana] [Alagbawana].Eshu Alaloilu [Alalombe].Eshu Alaktu.
Eshu Alawana.Eshu Alayik.Eshu Aletn.Eshu Alimu.Eshu Aloba.Eshu Aloma.Eshu Aluasam.
Eshu Alufama.Eshu Aaki Olokun.Eshu Arailele [Araelele].Eshu Araidi.
Eshu Arayeyi.Eshu Arinika [Arimika].Eshu Aroni.
Eshu Aropiu [Aropin].Eshu Aruda [Arugda].Eshu Arufin.Eshu Aselu.
Eshu Ashikuelu.Eshu Atul [Atutu].Eshu Awaloboma [Alawabona].Eshu Awere.Eshu Ayentel [Ajetola].Eshu Ayeru.Eshu Ay.
Eshu Barab [Baragbo].Eshu Baradage.
Eshu Baragargaluo [Baragadano].Eshu Baraiye.
Eshu Baralanube [Saralanube].Eshu Baralajiki.
Eshu Baralona.Eshu Baraa [Baraia].Eshu Baraiki.
Eshu Bario [Baraio]Eshu Barokeo [Barakeo] [Bara Kinkeo].Eshu Batioye [Batieye] [Batiye].Eshu Beln.
Eshu B.Eshu Bir.Eshu Birib.Eshu Bikuyin.
Eshu Bode [Bogde].Eshu Borok.Eshu Bragada.Eshu Dare.Eshu Of.Eshu Diki [Deke].Eshu Ebelukeo [Abelugueo].Eshu Edugbele.
Eshu Ekileyo.Eshu Ekuboro.Eshu Elegbara.
Eshu Eluasama.Eshu Emere.
Eshu Esherike.Eshu Ew.Eshu Griyel.Eshu Gber.
Eshu Ibamal [Imbal].Eshu Iboribueno [Iborikeo].Eshu Idena.
Eshu Ileloya.Eshu Ijel.Eshu Ia.
Eshu Janad.Eshu Jano.Eshu Kakesa.Eshu Kaminalow.
Eshu Kawanilele Orun [Mawanitele Okun].Eshu Kekunyelede [Yekun Yeledi].Eshu Keneno [Kekeno].Eshu Koima Koima [Koia Koia].Eshu Kolof.
Eshu Kotero.Eshu Laboni.
Eshu Lalu [Lala].Eshu Laluokirioko [Laluokikiokoko].Eshu Lameta [Lamota].Eshu Lamulamubata.Eshu Laribere [Layibora].Eshu Laroke [Larowe].Eshu Laroye.Eshu Lashe.Eshu Lay.Eshu Mud [Londelo].Eshu Lod.Eshu Lolu.
Eshu Mal.Eshu Marara [Karara].Eshu Marimaiy.Eshu Masankio.
Eshu Meko [Mako].Eshu Morilaye [Merilaye].Eshu N.
Eshu Nanke.Eshu Nor Bakuo.
Eshu Nikiniki [Miwi Miwi].Eshu Obakokero [Obakekero].Eshu Obaniwana [Obanijuana].Eshu Obarakaketu [Abara Lakentu].Eshu Obasin Lay [Abasinlaye].Eshu Obayila [Abatila].Eshu Oddara.
Eshu Oddemasa [Oddemora].Eshu Ofn Meyiy.
Eshu Ogunilobe [Ogunnilewo].Eshu Ojuani Lel Alaroye.
Eshu Okokoyebiye [Akokoyebiye].Eshu Okuanda [Okuando] [Okuande].Eshu Okuboro [Akuoro].Eshu Olanki.Eshu Onibarakea [Onibara Kena].Eshu Oniburu [Onibure].Eshu Oni Oshosi.Eshu Onini Buruku.
Eshu Oroigi [Oroiki].Eshu Osik.
Eshu Osukakugbo [Osakakungmo].Eshu Ow.Eshu Shiguide.Eshu Sokere.Eshu Soko Yoki.
Eshu Suayu.Eshu Tolab.
Eshu Unyolo [Ungolo].Eshu Wanloke [Awanloke].Eshu Wonke.Eshu Yangi.
Patakies de Eshu:
Orunla and its wife wished so much to have a son and went to see Obbatal to request him this. Obbatal that was pawned on molding the first man with clay, explained to them that they must have patience. But the marriage insisted. Orunla even proposed to take the figure he was doing.
Obbatal acceded and it explained to them that they had to put the hands on the figure during twelve months. The pair therefore did it and when the indicated term was fulfilled their son summoned up life. They called him Eshu. It was born speaking and with such a voracity that began to eat everything what found to its step.
A morning in which as usual Orunla consulted his oracle, this indicated him that he had to be all day with the machete in the hand. Eshu, who already had eaten all the animals, the plants and even stones, penetrated in the house of its parents with the intention of eat them.
When he saw his armed father with the machete he tried to flee but he could not, Orunmila persecuted him by all the house cutting him with his machete, and of each piece was born a new Eshu. A new two hundred Eshu ran by the house, until the first one, tired proposed a treatment to his upset father: Each one of my parts will be a son for you and you will be able to consult them in adivination when you wish.
The wise Orunmila agreed, but answered that Eshu must give back everything that have eaten.
Eshu vomited everything what had in its stomach and the things returned to occupy their place.
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Cubayoruba. La Santera o Regla de Osha-If. Todos los derechos reservados.
Durante años se ha creado confusión en los practicantes de la Regla de Osha Afrocubana con Eshu y Elegua, incluso muy erróneamente algunos le llaman EshuEleguá como si se tratase de la misma deidad, pero llamándolo por el nombre y el apellido, siendo que Eshu es uno y Elegguá es otro, con más similitudes que diferencias entre ambos, pero aun así son muy marcadas las difereDurante años se ha creado confusión en los practicantes de la Regla de Osha Afrocubana con Eshu y Elegua, incluso muy erróneamente algunos le llaman EshuEleguá como si se tratase de la misma deidad, pero llamándolo por el nombre y el apellido, siendo que Eshu es uno y Elegguá es otro, con más similitudes que diferencias entre ambos, pero aun así son muy marcadas las diferencias que existen.
Anteriormente ya hemos escrito acerca de Eleggua, ahora es el turno de conversar más de Eshu... Esta deidad fue la primera que llegó a la tierra, cuando todo era tinieblas, de ahí a que se le conozca como un orisha de oscuridad, malévolo e incluso se le llega a comparar con quien en el cristianismo se le denomina el diablo, tal vez esta comparación fue la causante de que quienes entregan Eshu les dijeran a sus ahijados que se trataba de Eleggua o EshuElegguá, siendo esto totalmente falso. También por el hecho de haber sido el primero en estar en este mundo y que tenga la misma atención prioritaria que se le da a Elegguá es lo que hace causar confusión entre ambas deidades. Incluso hay quienes dicen que Eshu no es un Orisha, por no ser ángel de la guarda y no coronarse mientras que Eleggua si lo es. Aprende todo sobre sus: SECRETOS DE ESHU…
Kindle Edition, 108 pages
Published November 29th 2016 by Roman Raygoza A
Egyptian, Classical, Ancient Near Eastern Art
Although the hieroglyph for “hearing, to hear” resembles the ear of an ox, sculpted model ears such as this one, as well as ear stelae, portray human ears. Model ears were dedicated to various gods and goddesses, including Hathor, Ptah, and Thoth, who held the epithet “One Who Hears Prayers.” Of these deities, Hathor most often received small votive offerings like this. According to inscriptions on ear stelae, both the stelae and model ears likely represented the ear of the deity and encouraged the god to heed people’s appeals. An act of such private dedication is an intimate manifestation of individual contact with a deity, a new phenomenon in Egyptian religion of the New Kingdom.
DATES 1539-1075 B.C.E.
PERIOD New Kingdom (probably)
COLLECTIONSEgyptian, Classical, Ancient Near Eastern Art
MUSEUM LOCATION This item is not on view
ACCESSION NUMBER 37.2041.4E
CREDIT LINE Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund
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CAPTIONEar, 1539-1075 B.C.E. Wood, 1 x 1/2 x 2 1/5 in. (2.5 x 1.2 x 5.7 cm). Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 37.2041.4E. Creative Commons-BY (Photo: Brooklyn Museum, 37.2041.4E_front_PS2.jpg)
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Eshu oración a
Elegua (Yoruba: Èṣù-Ẹlẹ́gbára, also spelled Eleggua; known as Eleguá in Latin America and Spanish-speakingCaribbean islands) is an Orisha, a deity of roads in the religions of Santería, Umbanda, Quimbanda, and Candomblé. He is syncretized with Saint Michael, Saint Anthony of Padua, or Holy Infant of Atocha.
Elegua is known as Èṣù-Ẹlẹ́gbára in the Yoruba religion and is closely associated with Eshu. Ẹlẹ́gbára means the "master of force" in the Yoruba language.
Eleguá is known in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Colombia, Cuba and Puerto Rico as the orisha and "owner" of caminos, or roads and paths. All ceremonies and rituals in Santería must first have the approval of Eleguá before progressing. He is the messenger of Olofi. Within the "Regla de Ocha" [Cuba], he slightly differs from Echu, who in this case is seen as his brother, by having less dangerous and less aggressive characteristics. Eleguá moves silently; in contrast, Echu "breaks through". Manifestations of Eleguá includes Akefun, Aleshujade, Arabobo, Awanjonu, Lalafán, Obasín, Oparicocha, and Osokere.
There is a patakí (story) in Santería in which Olodumare gives Eleguá the keys to the past, present, and future; for this reason, Eleguá is often depicted holding a set of keys. A figure of Eleguá may be placed in the house behind the entrance door.
In Afro-Brazilian religion Elegbara is one of the titles of Exu.
- ^ abAdeoye, C.L. (1989). Ìgbàgbọ́ àti ẹ̀sìn Yorùba (in Yoruba). Ibadan: Evans Bros. Nigeria Publishers. p. 123. ISBN .
- ^ abcdeLopes, Nei (2004). Enciclopédia brasileira da diáspora africana. São Paulo, SP: Selo Negro Edições. p. 252. ISBN .
Èṣù is an Òrìṣà/Irúnmọlẹ̀ in the isese religion of the Yoruba people. Èṣù is a prominent primordial Divinity (a delegated Irúnmọlẹ̀ sent by the Olódùmarè) who descended from Ìkọ̀lé Ọ̀run, and the Chief Enforcer of natural and divine laws - he is the Deity in charge of law enforcement and orderliness. As the religion has spread around the world, the name of this Orisha has varied in different locations, but the beliefs remain similar.
The other names of the Irúnmọlẹ̀ called Èṣù includes Ẹlẹ́jẹ̀lú, Olúlànà, Ọbasìn, Láarúmọ̀, Ajọ́ńgọ́lọ̀, Ọba Ọ̀dàrà,Onílé Oríta, Ẹlẹ́gbára Ọ̀gọ, Olóògùn Àjíṣà, Láàlú Ògiri Òkò, Láàlù Bara Ẹlẹ́jọ́, Láaróyè Ẹbọra tí jẹ́ Látọpa.
Èṣù is powerful, relevant, and ubiquitous to the extent of having every day of the four-day (ancient/traditional) Yorùbá week as his day of worship (Ọjọ́ Ọ̀ṣẹ̀), unlike all other Irúnmọlẹ̀s and Òrìṣàs (primordial Divinities and deified Ancestor Spirits; "ọjọ́ gbogbo ni ti Èṣù Ọ̀darà".
The controversial cognomen; A-bá-ni-wá-ọ̀ràn-bá-ò-rí-dá (He-who-creates-problems-for-the-innocent) highlights the complexity of the nature of this highly unpredictable Deity called Èṣù Ọba Ọ̀dàrà (who has his abode at crossroads) across all strata of Yorùbá society in general and of spiritual communities in particular.
Èṣù is a personification of Mischief; he is the one who teaches that there are always two sides or more to every issue. He balanced and created directions. Èṣù is so necessary to an ordered life! According to Oluwo Aderemi Ifaoleepin Aderemi from Oyo Alaafin, to the criminally minded who celebrate wickedness, injustice, and immorality and unrighteous people, Èṣù Láàlù is evil and devilish, whilst Láaróyè Ajọ́ńgọ́lọ̀ Ọkùnrin Òde is an awesome and persuasive Divinity to pious and morally upright people who place a premium on justice, morality, and good character.
Èṣù is the messenger not only to the Olódùmarè, but also to the other Irúnmọlẹ̀s/Òrìṣàs. He is also the intermediary between Ajoguns (evil spirits) to the Irúnmọlẹ̀s/Òrìṣàs and the ẹ̀dá èèyàn (human beings); he is the one who distributes, and also supervises the distribution of sacrifices (ẹbọ) to the Ajoguns.
Name and role
Èṣùu partially serves as an alternate name for Eleggua, the messenger for all Orishas, and that there are 256 paths to Eleggua—each one of which is an Eshu. It is believed that Èṣù of the ìṣẹ̀ṣe Religion is an Òrìṣà similar to Eleggua, but there are only 101 paths to Eshu according to ocha, rather than the 256 paths to Eleggua according to Ifá. Èṣù is known as the "Father who gave birth to Ogboni", and is also thought to be agile and always willing to rise to a challenge.
Both ocha and Ifá share some paths, however. Eshu Ayé is said to work closely with all Òrìṣà including Òrìṣà Olokun and is thought to walk on the shore of the beach. Èṣù Bi is a stern and forceful avatar, appearing as both an old man and young boy, who walked with Shangó and Oyá (the initial two Ibeyi), and Eshu Bi protects both of these, as well as all other small children. Eshu Laroye is an avatar believed to be the companion of Oshún and believed to be one of the most important Eshus, and the avatar of Eshu Laroye is thought to be talkative and small.
Èṣù is always at the middle of divergent world forces. He controls and regulates the two extremes - the world of happiness, joy, and fulfilment, as well as the arena of destruction, hopelessness, and sorrow.
Èṣù always demands from those who have to give to those demanded for it within the premises of sacrifices, rituals, and propitiation. He maintains the delicate balance of good and bad - just and unjust. He protects towns and villages, Priests and Priestess (àwọn Ẹlẹ́gùn - tí wọ́n ní ẹ̀rẹ́ ní Ìpàkọ́, and Devotees and Awos against evil machinations. And he always favours those that performed the necessary and appropriate sacrifices (ẹbọs) and other forms of rituals; "ẹni tó bá rúbọ l'Èṣù ń gbè"!
Èṣù Láàlù is a bossom friend, working partner, confidant, and close associate of Ọ̀rúnmìlà Baraà mi Àgbọnnìrègún, the one who practises and teaches Ifá - an esoteric language of Olódùmarè (containing divine message of life) through a very complex divinatory system, and who also teaches wisdom.
The name of Eshu varies around the world: in Yorùbáland, Eshu is Èṣù-Elegba or Laolu-Ogiri Oko; Exu de Candomblé in Candomblé; Echú in Santería and Latin America; Legba in Haitian Vodou; Leba in Winti; Exu de Quimbanda in Quimbanda; Lubaniba in Palo Mayombe; and Exu in Latin America.
Exu is known by various forms and names in Afro-Brazilian religions. They include Akessan; Alafiá; Alaketo; Bará, or Ibará; Elegbá, or Elegbará, Inan; Lalu, or Jelu; Laroiê; Lon Bií; Lonã; Odara; Olodé; Tamenta, or Etamitá; Tlriri. The most common forms or praise-names of Exu are Exu-Agbo, the protector and guardian of houses and terreiros; Exu-Elepô, the god of palm oil; Exu lnã, the god of fire; and Exu Ojixé, a messenger god.
A shrine dedicated to Exu is located outside of the main terreiro of a Candomblé temple, usually near the entrance gate. It is, in general, made of a simple mound of red clay. These shrines are similar to those found in Nigeria.
Ritual foods offered to Exu include palm oil; beans; corn, either in the form of cornmeal or popcorn; and farofa, a manioc flour. Four-legged male birds and other animals are offered as sacrifice to Exu. In each offering made to an orixá, a part of the food is separated and dedicated to Exu.
In the Syncretic religion of Umbanda, Exu may have a different meaning. Usually in Umbanda Exu is not considered a single Deity, but many different spirits. Some of the most popular versions of Exu are Exu Caveira ("Skull Exu", represented as a skeleton), Exu Tranca-Rua ("Street Locker", opener and closer of spiritual ways) and Exu Mirim ("Little Exu", a spirit that resembles the personality of a child or teenager). In Umbanda, a Pombagira (female consort of Exu) may also be considered a kind of Exu, commonly venerated in the practice of Brazilian Love magic.
Controversy on English translations and on Google
From the time of the first English translations of Yorùbá words in the mid nineteenth century, Èṣù has been rendered as "devil" or "satan". The first known instance of this came from Samuel Ajayi Crowther's "Vocabulary of the Yoruba" (1842) where his entries for "Satan" and "Devil" had Eshu in English. Subsequent dictionaries over the years have followed suit, permeating popular culture and Yorùbá societies as well. Lately, many online campaigns have been set up to protest this, and many activists have worked to correct it. There have also been quite a number of academic work examining the mistranslation.
The translation on Google Translate took up the same earlier mistranslations. This led to a number of online campaigns until 2016 when Nigerian linguist and writer Kola Tubosun, then an employee at Google, first changed it back to less derogatory connotations. When the changes were reverted, he changed them again in 2019. The translation for Èṣù to English now remains "Èṣù" while "devil" and "satan" translate to "bìlísì" and "sàtánì" respectively.
Appearances in popular culture
- Eshu appears in K. A. Applegate's fantasy series Everworld, serving as the main antagonist of its eighth book, Brave the Betrayal. He is a trickster god who tries many times to emotionally manipulate and mentally break the book's narrator, Jalil Sherman, but is ultimately defeated when Jalil proves too strong to give in to his mental tricks and magical illusions.
- The 1974 blaxploitation film Abby features Eshu, but mostly as a deranged and ruthless sex deity that possesses a young woman and causes her to sexually assault and brutally murder various men in the process.
- ^Falola, Toyin (March 2013). Esu: Yoruba God, Power, and the Imaginative Frontiers. Carolina Academic Press (June 24, 2013). ISBN .
- ^Fatunmbi, Awo Baba Falokun. Esu-Elegba: Ifa and the Divine Messenger. Original Pubns (January 1, 1993). ISBN .
- ^Fatunmbi, Awo Baba Falokun. Esu-Elegba: Ifa and the Divine Messenger. Original Pubns (January 1, 1993). ISBN .
- ^ abÓcha'ni Lele (24 June 2010). Teachings of the Santería Gods: The Spirit of the Odu. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co. p. 251. ISBN .
- ^Robert D. Pelton (1989). The Trickster in West Africa: A Study of Mythic Irony and Sacred Delight. University of California Press. p. 161. ISBN .
- ^Names and worship of Esu. Roots and Rooted. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- ^ abLopes, Nei (2004). Enciclopédia brasileira da diáspora africana. São Paulo, SP: Selo Negro Edições. pp. 266–267. ISBN .
- ^Nascimento, Adriano Roberto Afonso do; Souza, Lídio de; Trindade, Zeidi Araújo (December 2001). "Exus e Pombas-Giras: o masculino e o feminino nos pontos cantados da umbanda". Psicologia Em Estudo. 6 (2): 107–113. doi:10.1590/S1413-73722001000200015.
- ^"Esu is Not the Devil: How a Yoruba Deity Got Rebranded". OkayAfrica. 2017-12-14. Retrieved 2020-05-11.
- ^"ÈṢÙ IS NOT SATAN; WHO ÈṢÙ IS AND WHO HE IS NOT". Alámọ̀já Yorùbá. 2019-01-04. Retrieved 2020-05-11.
- ^Adefarakan, Temitope (2008). "'At a Crossroads': Spirituality and The Politics of Exile: The Case of the Yoruba Orisa". Obsidian. 9 (1): 31–58. ISSN 2161-6140. JSTOR 44489275.
- ^classicfm973. "The Discourse with Jimi Disu - Professor Sophie Oluwole". Mixcloud. Retrieved 2020-05-11.
- ^"Is Esu really satan?". TheCable. 2018-12-25. Retrieved 2020-05-11.
- ^""Èṣù" isn't "the Devil"; But You Knew That Already". Yoruba Name. 2016-12-16. Retrieved 2020-05-11.
- ^Túbọ̀sún, Kọ́lá (2019-05-09). "Once again, Èṣù no longer translates to "devil" or "satan" or "demon" on Google Translate.pic.twitter.com/EpW2wm3Ywv". @kolatubosun (in French). Retrieved 2020-05-11.
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