Species of flowering plant
Devil's club or devil's walking stick (Oplopanax horridus, Araliaceae; syn.Echinopanax horridus, Fatsia horrida) is a large understory shrub native to the arboreal rainforests of the Pacific Northwest, but also disjunct on islands in Lake Superior. It is noted for its large palmate leaves and erect, woody stems covered in noxious and irritating spines. It is also known as Alaskan ginseng and similar names, although it is not a true ginseng.
Devil's club generally grows to 1 to 1.5 metres (3 ft 3 in to 4 ft 11 in) tall. Some stands located in rainforest gullies or moist, undisturbed areas can reach heights of 3 metres (9.8 ft) to 5 metres (16 ft) or more. The spines are found along the upper and lower surfaces of veins of its leaves as well as the stems. The leaves are spirally arranged on the stems, simple, palmately lobed with 5-13 lobes, 20 to 40 centimetres (7.9 to 15.7 in) across. The flowers are produced in dense umbels 10 to 20 centimetres (3.9 to 7.9 in) diameter, each flower small, with five greenish-white petals. The fruit is a small red drupe 4 to 7 millimetres (0.16 to 0.28 in) diameter.
The plant is covered with brittle yellow spines that break off easily if the plants are handled or disturbed, and the entire plant has been described as having a "primordial" appearance. The plants are slow growing and take many years to reach seed-bearing maturity; this makes them very sensitive to human impact as they do not reproduce quickly.
This species usually grows in moist, dense forest habitats, and is most abundant in old-growth conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest. It is found from southcentral Alaska south to Oregon, and eastward to western Alberta and Montana. Disjunct native populations also occur over 1,500 kilometres (930 mi) away in Lake Superior on Isle Royale and Passage Island, Michigan and Porphyry Island and Slate Island, Ontario.
Devil's club reproduces by forming clonal colonies by means of rhizomes. What can appear to be several different plants may actually have all been one plant originally, with the clones detaching themselves after becoming established by laying down roots.
Traditionally, the charcoal from the stalks is still used to make ceremonial and protective face paints, and among the Ditidaht and neighboring groups, it was equally significant to red ochre as a symbolic link to the spirit world. Native American peoples such as the Tlingit and Haida have used the plant as traditional medicine for ailments such as adult-onset diabetes, as well as rheumatoid arthritis.
The plant has been used ceremonially by the Tlingit, Tsimshian, and Haida people residing in Southeast Alaska and coastal British Columbia. A piece of Devil's club hung over a doorway is said to ward off evil. The plant is harvested and used in a variety of ways, most commonly as an oral tea in traditional settings, but also poultices and ointments. Native Americans also dried and powdered the bark for use as a deodorant and used the mashed berries to clean hair.
Because devil's club is related to American ginseng, some people try to market the plant as an 'adaptogen'. The plant has been harvested for this purpose and sold widely as "Alaskan ginseng". Despite some morphological similarities between the araliaceous members Panax ('true' ginseng), Eleutherococcus senticosus ("Siberian ginseng") and devil's club, the different genera are chemically diverse.
An in vitro study showed that extracts of devil's club might inhibit tuberculosis. Another study suggested devil's club may reduce leukemia burden in mice engrafted with murine C1498 acute myeloid leukemia cells.
- ^Hulten, Eric (1968). Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories. ISBN .
- ^ abcPojar, Jim; Andy MacKinnon (1994). Plants of Coastal British Columbia. BC Ministry of Forests and Lone Pine Publishing. p. 82. ISBN .
- ^Trevor C. Lantz; Joseph A. Antos (2002). "Clonal expansion in the deciduous understory shrub, devil's club". Can. J. Bot. 80 (10): 1052–1062. doi:10.1139/b02-095. Archived from the original on 2012-07-07.
- ^Turner, Nancy J. (May 1982). "Traditional Use of Devil's-Club (Oplopanax horridus; Araliaceae) by Native Peoples in Western North America"(PDF). J. Ethnobiol. Society of Ethnobiology. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
- ^Levine, Ketzel Use of devil's club plant central to Tlingit cultureNational Public RadioMorning Edition, 8/11/2004
- ^Whitney, Stephen (1985). Western Forests (The Audubon Society Nature Guides). New York: Knopf. p. 425. ISBN .
- ^Fagan, Damian (2019). Wildflowers of Oregon: A Field Guide to Over 400 Wildflowers, Trees, and Shrubs of the Coast, Cascades, and High Desert. Guilford, CT: FalconGuides. p. 23. ISBN . OCLC 1073035766.
- ^Inui T, Wang Y, Deng S, Smith DC, Franzblau SG, Pauli GF (Jun 1, 2000). "Counter-current chromatography based analysis of synergy in an anti-tuberculosis ethnobotanical". Journal of Chromatography A. 1151 (1–2): 211–5. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2007.01.127. PMC 2533621. PMID 17316661.
- ^McGill; et al. (2014). "Extracts of Devil's Club (Oplopanax horridus) Exert Therapeutic Efficacy in Experimental Models of Acute Myeloid Leukemia". Phytotherapy Research. 28 (9): 1308–1314. doi:10.1002/ptr.5129. PMID 25340187.
PowerColor Red Devil AMD Radeon RX 6900 XT Ultimate Gaming Graphics Card with 16GB GDDR6 Memory, Powered by AMD RDNA 2, HDMI 2.1 (AXRX 6900XTU 16GBD6-3DHE/OC)
PowerColor Red Devil AMD Radeon RX 6900 XT Ultimate
Performance to Rule Your Game with Radeon RX 6900 XT Graphics
The AMD Radeon RX 6900 XT graphics card, powered by AMD RDNA 2 architecture, featuring 80 powerful enhanced Compute Units, 128 MB of all new AMD Infinity Cache and 16GB of dedicated GDDR6 memory, is engineered to deliver ultra-high frame rates and serious 4K resolution gaming. Your favorite AAA titles and eSports game will be presented like never before.
The Red Devil series is the flagship lineup of PowerColor, which puts together top performance and top craftsmanship. This card is factory-overclocked up to 2425MHz Boost Clock (2250 MHz Boost Clock for reference card), has sophisticated cooling design, and incorporates RGB lighting that glows or strobes to your customization. Dual BIOS easily toggles between OC and Silent Modes at your simple push of the slide switch.
PowerColor Red Devil Ultimate Radeon RX 6900 XT: Big Navi Unlocked And Unleashed
PowerColor already has a “non-Ultimate” Red Devil 6900 XT in its line-up, but the Red Devil Ultimate Radeon RX 6900 XT takes things to the next level. The silicon on this card has been specially binned to ensure stability at even higher clocks than standard cards, and the power limit has been increased as well. AMD has also tweaked its software to recognize the more capable GPUs, to unlock higher minimum and maximum clock settings in the Tuning section of its drivers.
We’ll explain everything and take the card for a spin shortly. First up, let’s get some particulars out of the way...
|GPU||AMD Radeon RX 6900 XT (7nm, Navi 21)|
|Boost Clock - OC Mode: Up to 2425MHz, Game Clock: Up to 2235MHz|
Boost Clock - Silent Mode: Up to 2335MHz, Game Clock: Up to 2135MHz
16 Gbps Effective
Maximum 4 Displays
HDMI: 7680×4320, DisplayPort1.4: 7680×4320
|1x HDMI, 3x DisplayPort|
|Dual UEFI w/ Switch|
3 Fans (2x100mm, 1x90mm)
3 slot, ATX, 5.34lbs
~303W (OC) / ~272W (Silent)
Minimum 850 Watt Power Supply, 3 x 8-pin Power Connector.
Find PowerColor Radeon RX 6900 XT Cards @ Amazon
Before we dive into the PowerColor Red Devil Ultimate Radeon RX 6900 XT, we should point out that we’re not going to cover the intricacies of its GPU in this piece. We’ve already covered the RDNA 2 architecture and Navi 21 GPU at the heart of this card in the past, specifically in our original Radeon RX 6900 XT reviewand our Radeon RX 6800 and Radeon RX 6800 XT launch article. In those two articles, we provide additional details regarding the Navi 21 GPU and the RDNA2 architecture, and discuss AMD’s Infinity Cache, the GPU’s new cache hierarchy, the updated Compute Units (CU) and their integrated Ray Accelerators, and Smart Access Memory (SAM), among many other things. If you’d like the additional technical detail, you’ll find it all in our previous coverage.
The PowerColor Red Devil Ultimate Radeon RX 6900 XT has a similar aesthetic to previous-gen Red Devil cards, but everything is amped up here. The PowerColor Red Devil Ultimate Radeon RX 6900 XT is quite large at a little over a foot long, 5” high and three-slots wide, though if you look closely, you’ll see the actual PCB is shorter than the overall length of the card.
The massive cooler is packing a high density heatsink with copper base, that's linked to the fins via seven heat pipes – 3 x 8mm and 4 x 6mm. Various sections of the heatsink make contact with the GPU, memory, and VRM on the card. And sitting atop the assembly are three axial, ball bearing fans, 2 x 100mm outer fans and a center 90mm fan, all wrapped in a rigid metal shroud. We should also note that the fans on the card stop spinning completely when the GPU temperature is below 60°C, so during light use the card is nice and quiet. There’s a metal heat plate on the backside of the card too, but PowerColor notes it doesn’t employ any thermal pads to make contact with the PCB. Instead, the plate is vented to add surface area and allow air to flow around the PCB.
Intermingled through the front and back of the shroud and backplate you’ll find RGB lighting on the PowerColor Red Devil Ultimate Radeon RX 6900 XT, and the card has an RGB header as well should users want to link it up with their motherboard to control / match the lighting.
Underneath the heatsink is a custom PCB with 16 power phases, versus 13 (11+2) on AMD’s reference design. DrMos high-polymer caps are used throughout the design as well. PowerColor notes that the VRM on this card is capable of delivering over 400W of power, and spreading the load across more phases helps keep board temperatures in check as well. Power is delivered to the card though a trio of 8-pin standard PCIe connectors (150w each), which, in addition to the power provided by the PEG slot, will offer more than enough power headroom.
The ports on the card are also illuminated, so they’re easy to see even in the dark with a PC crammed under a desk, which is a nice touch.
And now, for some benchmarks…
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.Berkcan Demir \u0026 Fakin - Devil (Club Mix) (Official Lyrics Video)
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