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"Jim Crow" laws provided a systematic legal basis for segregating and discriminating against African Americans.The laws first appeared after the Civil War and the Reconstruction Era and were enforced through the mid-twentieth century. The Jim Crow laws established segregation in public schools, the military, transportation, even restrooms and any public places. Q. This was validated in the Plessy v. Ferguson. Choose from 500 different sets of jim crow laws apush flashcards on Quizlet. The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow . How do African American responses to Jim Crow differ from 1877 to 1909? ... Courts/Laws Leaders Popular participation Loyalty to leader State control of Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites, specifically stronger in the South. Attempting to achieve national _____ after the Civil War A major question: who would control Reconstruction, Congress or the President? They continued to be in place until 1965. APUSH Review: Reconstruction Everything You Need To Know For Your APUSH Exam. The Jim Crow laws were a number of laws requiring racial segregation in the United States.These laws were enforced in different states between 1876 and 1965. Plessy Vrguson Mrs Lassiters Khs Government Class Worksheet Quizlet Apush Jim Crow Laws Definition List Summary Plessy V Ferguson Worksheet Worksheet plessy v ferguson worksheet answers multiple choice jim crow laws list plessy v ferguson quizlet apush plessy v ferguson jim crow laws wikipedia 3. Next Outline. Created by. STUDY. Term for the racial segregation laws imposed in the 1890s. Du Bois were the key players in this debate over the best method to … ... Jim Crow Laws. at the turn of the century, why did most immigrants to the US settle in cities. Segregation became common in public facilities including railroad cars, restaurants, … ... Jim Crow Laws Upheld by Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 Disenfranchisement for blacks. Name: _____ APUSH Review: Video #35: Reconstruction What is Reconstruction? Jim Crow laws were laws created by white southerners to enforce racial segregation across the South from the 1870s through the 1960s. It is America’s largest and most enduring civil rights organization. Home Subjects. Supported states and white supremecy. This law, passed in 1862, stated that a settler could acquire up to 160 acres of land and pay a minimal fee of $30.00 just for living on it for five years and settling it. With the federal presence gone, disenfranchisement of African American voters in the South became widespread and Southern states passed segregationist laws governing virtually all aspects of society—called Jim Crow—that remained intact until the Civil Rights Act of 1964, passed during the administration of President Lyndon B.Johnson. Jim Crow laws were the defining political, social, and economic policy throughout the first half of the 20th century. Jim Crow Stories . Topics: Gilded Age Politics: 1868-1890 President Grant. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The establishment of new Jim Crow laws, designed to legally separate blacks and whites in public spaces The creation of the NAACP, formed to advocate for racial equality in the United States. ... Jim Crow Laws. The correct answer is (D). Jim Crow laws existed primarily between the end of the Civil War to the mid-1960s. Jim Crow . The Harlem Renaissance | PBS. Advent Book Study #3 - The Fire Next Time by James Baldwin New Jim Crow - Lesson 3, Guided Reading Tim Keller | Prayer in the Psalms: Discovering How to Pray Hypnosis for Past Life Regression (Guided Page 1/8 The Court ruled that making a legal distinction between races did not violate the Thirteenth Amendment forbidding involuntary servitude. a slave-owning society to one without slavery. 6/7/2021 Test: US History | Quizlet 2/54 3. In theory, it was to create "separate but equal" treatment, but in practice Jim Crow Laws condemned black citizens to inferior treatment and facilities. DA: 11 PA: 47 MOZ Rank: 58. asserted that African Americans would no longer accept second class-citizenship put pressure on FDR to end discrimination in government. Jim Crow Laws were any of the laws legalizing racial segregation of blacks and whites that were enacted in Southern states beginning in the 1880s and enforced through the 1950's. APUSH Review: Period 5 (1844 - 1877) – 13%. Under the Jim Crow system, “whites only” and “colored” signs proliferated across the South at water fountains, restrooms, bus waiting areas, movie theaters, swimming pools, and public schools. Jim Crow Laws. 50 terms. Again today there are serious political challenges to birthright citizenship, voting rights, due process, and equal protection of the law. Period 6 Explained (1865-1898) - APUSH Review. Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States. The Jim Crow laws were a series of laws passed in numerous states designed to specifically restrict the legal and political and social freedoms of the African American community, and to some degree (poll taxes) the political freedoms of the extremely poor whites in the south in the United States, following the 1877 removal of Federal Troops from the south after the election of Rutherford … Read the attached documents below to compare and contrast these early civil rights leaders efforts to combat/survive in the Jim Crow era. APUSH Unit 6 Quiz 1 Evers. whites through "Jim Crow" laws. answer choices. Brown v. Board of Education. a foreign policy of isolationism to one of interventionism. Social Gospel Movement Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Freedman's Bureau "War on Poverty" A federal law that gave settlers 160 acres of land for about $30 if they lived on it for five years and improved it by, for instance, building a house on it. Jim Crow Laws - Racial Discrimination and Segregation For additional facts about racial discrimination and segregation refer to detailed information on Black Segregation History and for brief, fast facts refer to the Segregation History Timeline. Period 2 - 1607-1754. Studyres contains millions of educational documents, questions and answers, notes about the course, tutoring questions, cards and course recommendations that will help you learn and learn. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was a civil rights group founded in 1909. Alongside Jim Crow and other discriminatory laws, Prohibition brought coercion into everyday life and even into private homes. The United States was a powerful industrial nation and mobilized the entire society, including women and African-Americans, in order to achieve victory. The use of the atomic bomb helped hasten the end of the war and avoided a bloody invasion of … 13 terms. Vice president under James Garfield, he took over when Garfield was assassinated. Elijah Parish Lovejoy (November 9, 1802 – November 7, 1837) was an American Presbyterian minister, journalist, newspaper editor, and abolitionist.After having moved his newspaper from St. Louis, Missouri to Alton, Illinois, he was fatally shot during an attack by a pro-slavery mob. Where: The Southern United States When: Late 1800s-Mid 1900s Why: The Jim Crow Laws would keep African Americans from achieving their full potential and inspire the Civil Rights Movement. A settler could acquire it for only six months and pay $1.25 an acre. The most common types of laws ordered business owners and public buildings to keep blacks In 1896, the Supreme Court upheld state racial segregation laws based on the "separate but equal" doctrine in Plessy v. Ferguson. As such, these laws and policies are going to be super important for the APUSH … Read Free Quizlet Apush Chapter 4 markedly timely history of the reassembled Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s. Reconstruction Amendments 13 - abolished _____ 14 - granted _____ and equal protection 15 - Adult male _____ Impact of the 14th and 15th amendments? The roots of Jim Crow laws began as early as 1865, immediately following the ratification of the 13th Amendment, which abolished slavery in the United States. Laws designed to … Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Write. Considering these options, and the skill being tested by the question, it’s helpful to know when these events occurred to help eliminate some options. Create. In groups of three, create a Venn Diagram like the one below on poster paper. Homestead Act. ... Jim Crow Laws. Spell. Energy. Replaced agricultural production of slavery in South (essentially replaced slavery), black workers agreed to work in field, but in order to have access to this employment, they had to sign a contract to bound them perpetually to the plantation, developed into land owners providing seed and farm supplies to worker in exchange for share of harvest (another form of coercive servitude) Start studying APUSH AP Exam Study Guide - Period - 2020. The Jim Crow system was the result. Period 1 - 1491-1607. You can directly support Crash Course at Subscribe for as little as $0 to keep up with everything we're doing. Gives whites almost unlimited power. Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Southern states and municipalities enforced racial segregation in public places and in private lives. Jim Crow: Laws written to separate blacks and whites in public areas/meant African Americans had unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government: 162011941: Montgomery Bus Boycott: In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. What court case u pheld the constitutionality of segregation under the “separate but equal” doctrine. By declaring that Jim Crow laws were constitutional, the nation’s highest court created an atmosphere of legalized discrimination that endured for nearly six decades. Its targets coalesced into an electoral base of urban, working-class voters that propelled FDR to the White House. Jim Crow Laws Legal codes of segregation. One of the worst Black Codes were the Vagrancy Laws that required Freedmen to work for White people, usually former owners. Match. Q. The Harlem Renaissance was the name given to the cultural, social, and … Jim Crow Laws were statutes and ordinances established between 1874 and 1975 to separate the white and black races in the American South. Q. Plessy V Ferguson Worksheetswers Key Handout 4th Grade Quizlet Summary Apush Plessy V Ferguson Worksheet Worksheet plessy v ferguson summary plessy v ferguson quizlet chinese exclusion act quizlet plessy v ferguson worksheet handout brown v board of education Academically, parents can use preschool worksheets to help teach their children some of the basic skills they will … The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for APUSH. Jim Crow laws enforced segregation in everyday life, including in the use of drinking fountains. The legitimacy of such laws was validated by Plessy v. Ferguson. Separate coach laws were some of the first such laws to appear, beginning in Tennessee in the 1880s. The PowerPoints, YouTube videos, and handouts below address each of these topics. View apush stAAR DAILY QUIZ 3.docx from HSOO 543566 at Milby H S. 1. System of state codes institutionalizing segregation in the south. AP US History - APUSH Heritage. Why Did Lincoln Issue The Emancipation Proclamation Quizlet The proclamation did lincoln the issue of the battle of the emancipation proclamation, but he stated the emancipation proclamation is the bill of african americans and never had the highest quality Granitsm, Credit Mobilier Affair, Tammany Hall, Boss Tweed, Thomas Nast, Panic of 1873, Greenbacks, Election of 1876, Compromise of 1877, Civil Rights Act of 1875, Civil Rights Cases of 1883, Jim Crow laws, Plessy v. Q. Jim Crow laws were laws that restricted the freedom of African Americans from the 1880s to the 1960s. "The man who killed Jim Crow" Played a role in every civil rights case and defeated/attacked the segregation laws. Dramatically challenging our preconceptions of the hooded Klansmen responsible for establishing a Jim Crow racial hierarchy in the 1870s South, this “second Klan” spread in This cover from a nineteenth-century periodical helps illustrate that the United States was beginning to change from —. a mostly rural society to a mostly urban one. jim crow laws definition | jim crow laws definition | jim crow laws definition quizlet | jim crow laws definition law | jim crow laws definition date | jim crow So-called Jim Crow laws legalized what custom had long dictated. They masked themselves and burned black churches, schools, and terrorized … Learn jim crow laws apush with free interactive flashcards. Poll taxes, literacy tests, and the fear of lynching prevented Southern black voters from voting during the early 20 th century elections. Strike over pay cuts at a steel plant near Pittsburgh. The emergence of diverse opinions within the African-American community on how to proceed toward equality and the elimination of Jim Crow laws that mandated a segregated society was just as important. Jim Crow laws were put into effect during the South’s Reconstruction period in the 1890’s to enforce racial segregation in public places in the former Confederate States. Gravity. Start studying apush final. (1)passage of Jim Crow laws in the latter part of the 19th century (2)ratification of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments (3)refusal of Southern States to allow sharecropping (4)passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1866 21"Although important strides were made, Reconstruction failed to provide lasting guarantees of APUSH Vocab Chapter 6. Made sure, along with the grandfather clause, that blacks would not have political power. Like all great works of history, Some of these laws effectively banned blacks from voting, and allowed violence against blacks. Flashcards. Jim Crow laws went beyond separate railroad cars or designated rear seating on buses, states now instituted openly discriminatory policies that infringed African Americans’ civil rights. Jim Crow laws: These laws enforcing racial segregation in the South were backed up by lynchings and other forms of intimidation. Online Library Quizlet Chapter 2 Apush the amendments, while the states actively undermined them. Standard 3 for the South Carolina US History EOC addresses the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War. lilian_ayala. Jim Crow Laws State and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern states of the former Confederacy, with, starting in 1890, a "separate but equal" status forAfrican Americans. Find the training resources you need for all your activities. The Jim Crow Laws, were racial segregation laws enacted between 1876 and 1965. Home Subjects. The Southern establishment took charge by passing discriminatory laws known as the black codes. As the nation expanded and its population grew, regional tensions, especially over slavery, led to a civil war—the course and aftermath of which transformed American society. APUSH Quarter 3 Key terms Flashcards Quizlet. Social, Political, Economic Changes - Native Americans & Africans. Start studying APUSH. Report an issue. AP Contract. Jim Fisk and Jay Gould – 1869 failed attempt to “corner” gold market by buying gold cheap and selling for a profit. The NAACP drew many of its ideals from the earlier Niagara Movement. ... jim crow laws. Challenging Jim Crow. Topics covered include events leading up to the Civil War, key events in the Civil War (e.g., Emancipation Proclamation), Reconstruction, and Jim Crow. Jim Crow - APUSH Heritage. Start studying APUSH Chapter 23. The Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court case of 1896 was in regard to the Jim Crow Laws. To Kill A Mockingbird chapter 12-16. ... OTHER QUIZLET SETS. Native Americans and European Colonization. 1883 Civil Rights Act of 1873 was unconstitutional – 14th Amendment only applies to states not discrimination by private individuals. Our article on Black Populism tells the history of the African American farmers in the South.. Black History for kids: Important People and Events Key Topics–Period 6: 1865 to 1898 Remember that the AP US History exam tests you on the depth of your knowledge, not just your ability to recall facts. Used Jim Crow laws, poll taxes, literacy tests, and property qualifications to regain control of the south. (Jim Crow laws were given formal approval by the 1896 Plessy v. Also, southern states enact literacy requirements, voter registration laws, and poll taxes to ensure full scale disfranchisement of the south’s black population. Jim Crow laws-legal racial segregation upheld by this Supreme Court case ; Brown v. Board of Education– 1954 case that overturned the “separate but equal” doctrine; What example question about Plessy V. Ferguson might come up on the APUSH exam? Definition. 14th: Black Codes and, after 1877, Jim Crow laws that only applied to African Americans and thus segregated them despite allegedly being equal. The Populist movement was a revolt by farmers in the South and Midwest against the Democratic and Republican Parties for ignoring their interests and difficulties. A systematic state-level legal code of segregation and they enacted literacy requirements, voter-registration laws, and poll taxes to ensure full disfranchisement of the former slaves. Jim Crow Laws Flashcards Quizlet Lbqbyduh Pyr4m Freedom Walkers The Story Of The Montgomery Bus Boycott Ppt Download Jim Crow Brain Pop Flashcards Quizlet ... Jim Crow Quiz Brainpop Apush Unit 6 Flashcards Quizlet Brainpop Though The Civil Rights Act Abolished Jim Crow Test. Who is A. Philip Randolph? Learn. Started right after the Civil War in 1866. Nancy_Garza76. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Terms in this set (30) Southern Redeemers. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Ferguson (1896) Supreme Court case about Jim Crow railroad cars in Louisiana; the Court decided by 7 to 1 that legislation could not overcome racial attitudes, and that it was constitutional to have "separate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites. These laws were enacted in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by white Southern Democrat -dominated state legislatures to disenfranchise and remove political and economic gains made by black people during the Reconstruction period. PLAY.
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Play this game to review American History. During this time, the United States experienced a population and economic boom that led to the creation of an incredibly wealthy upper class. To answer the questions, you may use a search engine to answer the questions, or you may borrow a US history textbook from me. Need PPT Slides? The government was not supportive of labor unions or their leaders. In the study of United States History, the Gilded Age chronicles the period of time that made up the late 19th century, which saw an era of rapid economic growth following the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era. Our online gilded age trivia quizzes can be adapted to suit your requirements for taking some of the top gilded From the Flocabulary lesson :The Gilded Age:" Political machines gave out jobs and other benefits in exchange for _____. The Progressive Era was a duration of widespread social advocacy as well as political reform across the United States, from the 1890s to the 1920s. In the study of United States History, the Gilded Age chronicles the period of time that made up the late 19th century, which saw an era of rapid economic growth following the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era. The Immigration Act of 1882 was designed to limit immigration from, All of the following were part of the Gilded Age EXCEPT, The Gilded Age in U.S. history included all of the following except. The Gilded Age saw impressive economic growth and the unprecedented expansion of major cities. The Gilded age refers to the brief time in American History after the Civil War Restoration period.  The Gilded Age faced a lot of political corruption. Author of novels that all had the same "rags to riches" plot -… Rails changed the American landscape both between and within its cities and towns. As always, the quizzes are pass/fail, and you must receive a score of at least 80% to get credit. The Gilded Age describes the period of history between 1870 and 1900. SURVEY . How did industrialization bring about the development of groups like the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor? It led to many technological innovations like the mechanical reaper, steel plow, and seed drill. Part A: New South/Great West. The main purposes of the Progressive motion were removing troubles triggered by industrialization, urbanization, […] Learn. Start studying Gilded Age test. The gap between the poor and the rich widened to unprecedented proportions which explains the expression "Gilded Age" coined by Mark Twain with his eponymous novel since only the "surface" is gilded. Indeed the similarities between then and now are stronger than they were forty years ago. Create. Q. assimilate American Indians into American society. The events in the box took place during what era? Quizlet Period 2 Period 4 Quia Period 2 Period 4 Absent?! votes. expansion Westward and growth of big business. Why did critics of industrialists called them robber barons? Festivebreadsticks. Who founded Hull House? It created jobs and increased mobility for Americans. answer choices . Test your understanding of The Gilded Age concepts with's quick multiple choice quizzes. 1876-1900. This quiz covers NEW information. Why did many immigrants leave their countries to come to the United States? Urbanization in the United States led to what major problems? Why did the U.S. government enact Civil Service reform? Unit 1 - The Gilded Age. Test Review for Unit 1 Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free. Flashcards. Continuity and change in the Gilded Age (Opens a modal) Practice. Poll Taxes 3.) Start studying The Gilded Age Test Questions. What are two major characteristics of the Gilded Age? Grandfather Clauses: Exempted from electoral requirements anyone who had voted in 1860 White Democrats (“Redeemers”) reassumed political power in the South . Terms in this set (23). 1. Search. Perfect prep for The Gilded Age & the Progressive Era (1877–1917) quizzes and tests you might have in school. Which is a true statement about the growth of railroads in the late 1800s? Test your knowledge on all of The Gilded Age & the Progressive Era (1877–1917). The Gilded Age derived its name from the many great fortunes that were created during this period. If you have a history exam concerning the gilded age, then this quiz is for you. Why did groups like the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor form? The Gilded Age Video Notes: Just the Facts: The Emergence of Modern America- The Gilded Age (Click title link to watch video!) This flashcard set will help you learn about the Gilded Age, a period of American history from 1870 - 1900. Start studying Gilded Age Test. This led to the Gilded Age which gets it’s name from the wealth that is created during this time and the way of life this wealth supported. To answer the questions, you may use a search engine to answer the questions, or you may borrow a US history textbook from me. Search for courses, skills, and videos. Missed a question here and there? Chicago’s population increased tenfold from 1870 to 1900, for example. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Check your understanding of the Gilded Age. They have not been reviewed for relevance or accuracy. Write. This is What Life was Like During the American Gilded Age Larry Holzwarth - March 30, 2019 . Corporatism, Few regulations, widening social inequalities and Industrialization The Gilded Age is the time when Industrialiation, Capitalism and trusts triumphed. PLAY. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Donate Login Sign up. Choose from 500 different sets of gilded age flashcards on Quizlet. Log in Sign up. 2. Continuity and change in the Gilded Age Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. because the Spoils System and political machines spread corruption in politics. STUDY. Match. Patterns of tension that persist to the present—black and white, capital and labor, science and religion, republic and empire, public good and private gain—can be traced to the era of corsets and spats. Gilded Age Vocab Grids with Definitions.docx: File Size: 17 kb: File Type: docx Test your knowledge on all of The Gilded Age & the Progressive Era (1877–1917). The page numbers provided for each question refer to the American Journey textbook. You may take the quiz as many times as you want. The Gilded Age in United States history is the late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900. Big businesses rose to power and became monarchs in the government while the presidents proved to be rather ineffective in passing bills to protect not only the poor whites but also the newly freed blacks. Find out in this APUSH Gilded Age quiz. For what political party did Eugene Debs help organize and become its leader in the Gilded Age? The period takes its name from the earliest of these, The Gilded Age (1873), written by Mark Twain in collaboration with Charles Dudley Warner. During the latter half of the 19th century What was the major reason the U.S. government removed Indians from their traditional lands and moved them to reservations? Which two innovations led to an increase in the productivity of factories during the Gilded Age? by providing services to immigrants and the poor to secure their votes. Wikimedia. What geographical feature of the Great Plains region made it attractive to farmers? Industrialization created low-wage, low-skill jobs with workers who could be replaced easily. Home Browse. Only $2.99/month. February 3, 2019 Natalya Balnova for The Chronicle Review. While big businesses grew with industrialization of the late 1800s, the agricultural sector of the time was characterized by -. Unit 7 Vocab Activity: File Size: 294 kb: File Type: pdf: Download File. You may take the quiz as many times as you want. Place these events in chronological order: Homestead Act (1862), End of Civil War (1865), End of Reconstruction (1877), Chinese Exclusion Act (1882), Haymarket Riot (1886), Pullman Strike (1894). Got a Gilded Age test and you don't know a Robber Baron from a New Colossus? The main purposes of the Progressive motion were removing troubles triggered by industrialization, urbanization, […] On the West Coast, high unemployment, low wages, and nativist sentiment led to which law? It increased markets and facilitated growth of the West. major social, political, and economic events within a period of time. An oldie, but goodie! This flashcard set will help you learn about the Gilded Age, a period of American history from 1870 - 1900. In the late 19th century, what did farmers struggle with? The Gilded Age (including Westward Expansion) 1877-1898 The Transcontinental Railroad established a permanent link between the East and West coasts. Search Create Log in Sign up Log in Sign up Gilded Age Test Review STUDY Flashcards Learn Write Spell Test … The name and the era The term Gilded Age for the period of economic boom after the American Civil War up to the turn of the century was applied to the era by historians in the 1920s, who took the term from one of Mark Twain's lesser-known novels, The Gilded Age: A … New Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe angered which group of Americans? Tags: Question 11 . Find out in this APUSH Gilded Age quiz. As always, the quizzes are pass/fail, and you must receive a score of at least 80% to get credit. During the Gilded Age there was a huge shift towards unskilled wage work and big corporations. Next let's look at living and migration patterns. Learn gilded age with free interactive flashcards. Mechanization in agriculture put many farmers out of a job. Doesn't invent the assembly line, but perfected it -used the assembly line to increase how fast cars are made, which Missed a question here and there? rush to settle on free or cheap land in the Great Plains (West). The Gilded Age can still be characterized as the prelude to our own time. Chapter 23 - Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age, 1869-1896 (Course Notes) Chapter 24 - Industry Comes of Age, 1865-1900 (Course Notes) Chapter 25 - America Moves to the City, 1865-1900 (Course Notes) Chapter 26 - The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution, 1865-1896 (Course Notes) Q. What was the purpose of the Dawes Act of 1877? In 1865 only about 20% of the population lived in cities. Industrialization. to protect the jobs of low-wage, low-skilled workers. GILDED AGE POLITICS ... Literacy Test 2.) equal pay for women. GMX Search – quick, clear, accurate. The South after the Civil War . What do you know of this period? If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. Spell. answer choices . How did the automobile affect the United States? because he engaged in philanthropy to help others. The Gilded Age DRAFT 8th - 12th grade 10 times History 49% average accuracy 6 months ago jloborestrepo_49274 0 Save Edit Edit The Gilded Age … Why were many labor strikes in the late nineteenth century unsuccessful? From the text "Workers’ Rights and the History of Labor Unions": Which of the following best identifies a central idea of this text? Industrialization & Big Business Notes: File Size: 3868 kb: File Type: ppt: Download File. From the Flocabulary lesson "The Gilded Age":What did trusts do? Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. Gilded Age enthusiasm was fueled not merely by the performance of the overall economy, but also by the new technologies it produced. The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today The Gilded Age. overproduction resulting in low prices for products and debt for farmers. How did the population growth in the late 19th century affect American agriculture? The Progressive Era was a duration of widespread social advocacy as well as political reform across the United States, from the 1890s to the 1920s.
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"The 'Strong' Government 1869-1877 -- The 'Weak' Government 1877-1881," 1880

Two part cartoon showing: woman, "the Solid South", carrying Ulysses S. Grant in a carpet bag marked "carpet bag and bayonet rule"; Rutherford B. Hayes plowing under the carpet bag & bayonets with a plow marked "Let'em alone policy."


In this two-part cartoon from 1880, "The Solid South" is seen struggling under the "Carpet Bag and Bayonet Rule" of the "Strong" United States government, led by President Ulysses S. Grant, who is seen riding among bayonets with an escort of two federal soldiers. In the background, the illustration shows a destroyed and occupied South. On the other hand, under the Presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes, the "Carpet Bag and Bayonet Rule" is being plowed under by the president's "Let’em Alone Policy." Under this "Weak" government, the New South is depicted and factories and fields thrive in the background. A white man, presumably a land owner, is drawn giving orders to an African-American, presumably a sharecropper or tenant farmer. The cartoon shows the dichotomy of the two presidencies. Republican Civil War hero Ulysses S. Grant used the powers of the 1870 and 1871 Enforcement Acts to send federal troops into the South to protect the civil and voting rights of African Americans when he became president. He also ordered the Justice Department to increase their efforts to identify, arrest and prosecute members of violent white mobs, including the Ku Klux Klan. Republican Rutherford B. Hayes placated Democratic leaders in Congress by agreeing to create what would become known as the Compromise of 1877. In exchange for conceding the presidency to Hayes, he would withdraw the remaining federal troops from the South whose support were essential for the survival of Republican state governments in Florida, Louisiana and South Carolina. Hayes followed through only a few months into his presidency, and as a result, the remaining southern state Republican governments collapsed, southern Democrats regained control of southern politics and forced out African Americans and carpetbaggers, new state constitutions were written and laws passed and the gains made for African American civil and political rights were crushed.

Transcript of "The 'Strong' Government 1869-1877 -- The 'Weak' Government 1877-1881"

Source-Dependent Questions

  • According to the artist, what was the difference between Presidents Ulysses S. Grant and Rutherford B. Hayes in how they dealt with the South during and immediately after Reconstruction?
  • Which government, "Strong" or "Weak," was most beneficial to the southern states and their people according to the artist? How did the artist draw these images to prove this point?
  • How would Hayes' non-interventionist policies have impacted both the makeup of Southern governments and the civil and political rights gained by African Americans during Reconstruction?

Citation Information

Wales, James A., "The 'Strong' government 1869-1877 -- The 'weak' government 1877-1881 / J.A. Wales," 1880. Courtesy of Library of Congress


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The term “Jim Crow” typically refers to repressive laws and customs once used to restrict Black Americans' rights, but the origin of the name itself actually dates back to before the Civil War. 

In the early 1830s, the white actor Thomas Dartmouth “Daddy” Rice was propelled to stardom for performing minstrel routines as the fictional “Jim Crow,” a caricature of a clumsy, dimwitted Black enslaved man. Rice claimed to have first created the character after witnessing an elderly Black man singing a tune called “Jump Jim Crow” in Louisville, Kentucky. He later appropriated the Jim Crow persona into a minstrel act where he donned blackface and performed jokes and songs in a stereotypical dialect. 

For example, “Jump Jim Crow” included the popular refrain, “Weel about and turn about and do ‘jis so, eb’ry time I weel about I jump Jim Crow.” Rice’s minstrel act proved a massive hit among white audiences, and he later took it on tour around the United States and Great Britain. As the show’s popularity spread, “Jim Crow” became a widely used derogatory term for Black people.

READ MORE: How the History of Blackface Is Rooted in Racism

Jim Crow’s popularity as a fictional character eventually died out, but in the late 19th century the phrase found new life as a blanket term for a wave of anti-Black laws laid down after Reconstruction. Some of the most common laws included restrictions on voting rights. Many Southern states required literacy tests or limited suffrage to those whose grandfathers had also had the right to vote. Other laws banned interracial relationships, while clauses allowed businesses to separate their Black and white clientele. 

The segregationist philosophy of “separate but equal” was later upheld in the famous 1896 Supreme Court decision “Plessy vs. Ferguson,” in which the Court ruled that the state of Louisiana had the right to require different railroad cars for Blacks and whites. 

The “Plessy” decision would eventually lead to widespread adoption of segregated restaurants, public bathrooms, water fountains and other facilities. “Separate but equal” was eventually overturned in the 1954 Supreme Court Case “Brown vs. Board of Education,” but Jim Crow’s legacy would continue to endure in some Southern states for decades.

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  1. Forty Acres and a Mule
  2. Black Codes
  3. Rise of the Sharecropping System
  4. ‘King Cotton’ Dethroned

Sharecropping is a type of farming in which families rent small plots of land from a landowner in return for a portion of their crop, to be given to the landowner at the end of each year. Different types of sharecropping have been practiced worldwide for centuries, but in the rural South, it was typically practiced by formerly enslaved people. With the southern economy in disarray after the abolition of slavery and the devastation of the Civil War, sharecropping enabled white landowners to reestablish a labor force, while giving freed Black people a means of subsistence. However, the system severely restricted the economic mobility of the laborers, leading to conflicts during the Reconstruction era.

Forty Acres and a Mule

During the final months of the Civil War, tens of thousands of freed slaves left their plantations to follow General William T. Sherman‘s victorious Union Army troops across Georgia and the Carolinas.

In January 1865, in an effort to address the issues caused by this growing number of refugees, Sherman issued Special Field Order Number 15, a temporary plan granting each freed family 40 acres of land on the islands and coastal region of Georgia. The Union Army also donated some of its mules, unneeded for battle purposes, to the former slaves.

Did you know? In 1870, only around 30,000 African Americans in the South owned land (usually small plots), compared with 4 million others who did not.

When the war ended three months later, many freed African Americans saw the “40 acres and a mule” policy as proof that they would finally be able to work their own land after years of servitude. Owning land was the key to economic independence and autonomy.

Instead, as one of the first acts of Reconstruction, President Andrew Johnson ordered all land under federal control to be returned to its previous owners in the summer of 1865.

The Freedmen’s Bureau, created to aid millions of former slaves in the postwar era, had to inform the freedmen and women that they could either sign labor contracts with planters or be evicted from the land they had occupied. Those who refused or resisted were eventually forced out by army troops.

Black Codes

In the early years of Reconstruction, most Black people living in rural areas of the South were left without land and forced to work as laborers on large white-owned farms and plantations in order to earn a living. Many clashed with former slave masters bent on reestablishing a gang-labor system similar to the one that prevailed under slavery.

In an effort to regulate the labor force and reassert white supremacy in the postwar South, legislatures in former Confederate states soon passed restrictive laws denying Black people legal equality or political rights, and created “black codes” that forced former slaves to sign yearly labor contracts or be arrested and jailed for vagrancy.

These black codes provoked a fierce resistance among the freedmen and undermined support in the North for President Johnson’s Reconstruction policies. A Republican victory in the Congressional elections of 1866 led to the passage of the Reconstruction Acts in 1867, beginning a new phase of Reconstruction.

During this period, the passage of the 14th Amendment and the 15th Amendment granted African Americans the right to vote, equality before the law and other rights of citizenship.

Rise of the Sharecropping System

Despite giving African Americans the rights of citizens, the federal government (and the Republican-controlled state governments formed during this phase of Reconstruction) took little concrete action to help freed Black people in the quest to own their own land.

Instead of receiving wages for working an owner’s land—and having to submit to supervision and harsh discipline—most freedmen preferred to rent land for a fixed payment.

By the early 1870s, the system known as sharecropping had come to dominate agriculture across the cotton-planting South. Under this system, Black families would rent small plots of land, or shares, to work themselves; in return, they would give a portion of their crop to the landowner at the end of the year.

‘King Cotton’ Dethroned

The sharecropping system also locked much of the South into a reliance on cotton—just at the time when the price for cotton was plunging.

In addition, while sharecropping gave African Americans autonomy in their daily work and social lives, and freed them from the gang-labor system that had dominated during the slavery era, it often resulted in sharecroppers owing more to the landowner (for the use of tools and other supplies, for example) than they were able to repay.

Some Black people managed to acquire enough money to move from sharecropping to renting or owning land by the end of the 1860s, but many more went into debt or were forced by poverty or the threat of violence to sign unfair and exploitative sharecropping or labor contracts that left them little hope of improving their situation.


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About Section 5 Of The Voting Rights Act

Jurisdictions Previously Covered by Section 5
Voting Changes Covered by Section 5
Making Section 5 Submissions
Section 5 Guidelines
Notices of Section 5 Submission Activity
Section 5 Changes by Type and Year
Section 5 Objections
Litigation Concerning Section 5

The Shelby County decision

On June 25, 2013, the United States Supreme Court held that it is unconstitutional to use the coverage formula in Section 4(b) of the Voting Rights Act to determine which jurisdictions are subject to the preclearance requirement of Section 5 of the Voting Rights Act, Shelby County v. Holder, 133 S. Ct. 2612 (2013). The Supreme Court did not rule on the constitutionality of Section 5 itself. The effect of the Shelby County decision is that the jurisdictions identified by the coverage formula in Section 4(b) no longer need to seek preclearance for the new voting changes, unless they are covered by a separate court order entered under Section 3(c) of the Voting Rights Act.

Coverage Under the Special Provisions of the Voting Rights Act

Section 5 was enacted to freeze changes in election practices or procedures in covered jurisdictions until the new procedures have been determined, either after administrative review by the Attorney General, or after a lawsuit before the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, to have neither discriminatory purpose or effect. Section 5 was designed to ensure that voting changes in covered jurisdictions could not be implemented used until a favorable determination has been obtained.

The requirement was enacted in 1965 as temporary legislation, to expire in five years, and applicable only to certain states. The specially covered jurisdictions were identified in Section 4 by a formula. The first element in the formula was that the state or political subdivision of the state maintained on November 1, 1964, a "test or device," restricting the opportunity to register and vote. The second element of the formula would be satisfied if the Director of the Census determined that less than 50 percent of persons of voting age were registered to vote on November 1, 1964, or that less than 50 percent of persons of voting age voted in the presidential election of November 1964. Application of this formula resulted in the following states becoming, in their entirety, "covered jurisdictions": Alabama, Alaska, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Virginia, In addition, certain political subdivisions (usually counties) in four other states (Arizona, Hawaii, Idaho, and North Carolina were covered. It also provided a procedure to terminate this coverage.

Under Section 5, any change with respect to voting in a covered jurisdiction -- or any political subunit within it -- cannot legally be enforced unless and until the jurisdiction first obtains the requisite determination by the United States District Court for the District of Columbia or makes a submission to the Attorney General. This requires proof that the proposed voting change does not deny or abridge the right to vote on account of race, color, or membership in a language minority group. If the jurisdiction is unable to prove the absence of such discrimination, the District Court denies the requested judgment, or in the case of administrative submissions, the Attorney General objects to the change, and it remains legally unenforceable.

In 1970, Congress recognized the continuing need for the special provisions of the Voting Rights Act, which were due to expire that year, and renewed them for another five years. It also adopted an additional coverage formula, identical to the original formula except that it referenced November 1968 as the date to determine if there was a test or device, levels of voter registration, and electoral participation. This additional formula resulted in the partial coverage of ten states.

In 1975, the special provisions of the Voting Rights Act were extended for another seven years, and were broadened to address voting discrimination against members of "language minority groups." An additional coverage formula was enacted, based on the presence of tests or devices and levels of voter registration and participation as of November 1972. In addition, the 1965 definition of "test or device" was expanded to include the practice of providing election information, including ballots, only in English in states or political subdivisions where members of a single language minority constituted more than five percent of the citizens of voting age. This third formula had the effect of covering Alaska, Arizona, and Texas in their entirety, and parts of California, Florida, Michigan, New York, North Carolina, and South Dakota.

In 1982, Congress extended Section 5 for 25 years, but no new Section 5 coverage formula was adopted. Congress did, however, modify the procedure for a jurisdiction to terminate coverage under the special provisions.

In 2006, Congress extended the requirements of Section 5 for an additional 25 years.

Judicial Review of Voting Changes

Section 5 provides two methods for a covered jurisdiction to comply with Section 5. The first method mentioned in the statute is by means of a declaratory judgment action filed by the covered jurisdiction in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. A three-judge panel is convened in such cases. The defendant in these cases is the United States or the Attorney General, represented in court by attorneys from the Voting Section of the Civil Rights Division. Appeals from decisions of the three-judge district court go directly to the United States Supreme Court.

The jurisdiction must establish that the proposed voting change "does not have the purpose and will not have the effect of denying or abridging the right to vote on account of race or color or [membership in a language minority group]." The status of a voting change that is the subject of a declaratory judgment review action is that it is unenforceable until the declaratory judgment action is obtained and the jurisdiction may not implement or use the voting change.

Administrative Review of Voting Changes

The second method of compliance with Section 5 is known as administrative review. A covered jurisdiction can avoid the potentially lengthy and expensive litigation route by submitting the voting change to the Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice, to which the Attorney General has delegated the authority to administer the Section 5 review process. The jurisdiction can implement the change if the Attorney General affirmatively indicates no objection to the change or if, at the expiration of 60 days, no objection to the submitted change has been interposed by the Attorney General. It is the practice of the Department of Justice to respond in writing to each submission, specifically stating the determination made regarding each submitted voting change.

Well over 99 percent of the changes affecting voting are reviewed administratively, no doubt because of the relative simplicity of the process, the significant cost savings over litigation, and the presence of specific deadlines governing the Attorney General's issuance of a determination letter.

Over the last decade, the Attorney General received between 4,500 and 5,500 Section 5 submissions, and reviewed between 14,000 and 20,000 voting changes, per year.

The Attorney General may interpose an objection by informing the jurisdiction of the decision within 60 days after a completed submission of a voting change is received. Most voting changes submitted to the Attorney General are determined to have met the Section 5 standard. Since Section 5 was enacted, the Attorney General has objected to about one percent of the voting changes that have been submitted.

The Attorney General has published detailed guidelines that explain Section 5. Additional information about the submission process is available here. The Attorney General has posted notices of Section 5 submissions.

In conducting administrative review, the Attorney General acts as the surrogate for the district court, applying the same standards that would be applied by the court. The burden of establishing that a proposed voting change is nondiscriminatory falls on the jurisdiction, just as it would on the jurisdiction as plaintiff in a Section 5 declaratory judgment action.

There are occasions when a jurisdiction may need to complete the Section 5 review process on an accelerated basis due to anticipated implementation before the end of the 60-day review period. In such cases, the jurisdiction should formally request "Expedited Consideration" in its submission letter, explicitly describing the basis for the request in light of conditions in the jurisdiction and specifying the date by which the determination must be received. Although the Attorney General will attempt to accommodate all reasonable requests, the nature of the review required for particular submissions will necessarily vary and an expedited determination may not be possible in certain cases.

A determination by the Attorney General not to object removes the prohibition on enforcement imposed by Section 5. This decision not to object to a submitted change cannot be challenged in court. Morris v. Gressette, 432 U.S. 491 (1977). Although the jurisdiction may then implement that change, the change remains subject to a challenge on any other grounds. For example, a redistricting plan may still be challenged in court by the Attorney General as violating Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act, or any other applicable provision of federal law which the Attorney General is authorized to enforce. Similarly, private individuals with standing may challenge that practice under any applicable provision of state or federal law.

The declaratory judgment route remains available to jurisdictions even after the Attorney General interposes an objection. The proceeding before the three-judge D.C. District Court, is de novo and does not constitute an appeal of the Attorney General's determination.

Lawsuits to Prevent the Use of Voting Changes Not Reviewed under Section 5

Voting changes that have not been reviewed under Section 5 are legally unenforceable. Section 12(d) of the Act authorizes the Attorney General to file suit to enjoin violations of Section 5. A private right of action to seek injunctive relief against a Section 5 violation was recognized by the Supreme Court in Allen v. State Board of Elections, 393 U.S. 544, 554-57 (1969). Any person or organization with standing to sue can challenge a Section 5 violation in the United States District Court in the judicial district where the violation is alleged to have occurred. Whether brought by the Attorney General or by private parties, these cases are commonly known as Section 5 enforcement actions.

Section 5 enforcement cases are heard by three-judge district court panels, whose role is to consider three things only:

  1. whether a covered voting change has occurred;
  2. if so, whether the requirements of Section 5 have been met preclearance has been obtained; and
  3. if not, what relief by the court is appropriate.

Lopez v. Monterey County, 519 U.S. 9, 23 (1996). The only court that can make the determination that change is not discriminatory is purpose or effect is the United States District Court for the District of Columbia.

Upon finding non-compliance with Section 5, the local federal court will consider an appropriate equitable remedy. The general objective of such remedies is to restore the situation that existed before the implementation of the change. Thus, the typical remedy includes issuance of an injunction against further use of the change. In certain circumstances, other remedies have included voiding illegally-conducted elections, enjoining upcoming elections unless and until the jurisdiction complies with Section 5, or ordering a special election; in some cases courts have also issued orders directing the jurisdiction to seek Section 5 review of the change from the Attorney General or the United States District Court for the District of Columbia.


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